LOCATION: Multiple

SUBURB: Multiple


STATE & COUNTRY: New South Wales, Australia

SPEED REDUCTION: Various to 40 km/h



  • Signage
  • Traffic calming: chicanes, narrow carriageways and half openings; pedestrian fencing, refuges and raised crossings; gateway treatments includign differentiation through painting, paving rasied platforms; kerb extensions, blisters and good landscaoing; illuminated or flashing lights; speed humps
  • Promotion through roadside signage, letterbox drops, local media coverage and campaigns

COST: Not available


  • Casualty crashes: a 37.6% reduction in crashes 2002-2015 for High Pedestrain Activity Areas (HPAA) compared to a 20.4% reduction on comparable 40/50/60 km/h roads elsewhere
  • Serious casualty crashes: a 33.0% reduction in crashes 2005-2015 for HPAA compared to a 3.6% reduction on comparable 40/50/60 km/h roads elsewhere
  • Pedestrian serious casualty crashes: a 46.4% reduction in crashes 2005-2015 for HPAA compared to a 19.1% reduction on comparable 40/50/60 km/h roads elsewhere
  • For zones where implementation dates were known, a reduction of 12.5% to 16.4% in casualty crashes in the three to five years after implementation of HPAA zones compared to the three to five years before implementation.


  • HPAA zones demonstrated greater percentage reductions in casualty crashes compared with other permanent 40 km/h zones and also included roads with a far greater number of pedestrian and other crashes therefore achieving far greater reductions in absolute numbers of casualties
  • Stakeholders reported that introduction of permanent 40 km/h zones results in a reduction in crashes, a reduction in travel speeds and some reduction in motorised traffic.
  • Overall opinions of 40 km/h zones were mixed depending on whether individuals placed greater value on mobility compared with safety and amenity
  • The community survey indicated strong support for 40 km/h on busy roads where lots of people were walking.
  • The HPAA program guidelines are complex and put significant boundaries around implementation. They can be usefully revised to reflect learnings and support continued safety improvement.
  • Change management is a critical element of any speed management reform, and should be a key consideration in implementing lower speed limits.
  • There is good potential in taking some smaller intermediate steps, ahead of a more significant program to capitalise upon the success of the HPAA program.E.g.:
    • Consistency of zoning and signage
    • relax pedestrian crossing warrants (criteria) in HPAA zones
    • Trial 40 km/h zones without traffic calming treatments
    • Trial part-time zones