This page contains some key resources on walking and cycling, including an archive of the documents produced by the Australian Bicycle Council.

Return to Resources page »
Date Added
Speed management and integrated treatments
Department of Transport and Main Roads, Queensland

On this page:

27/10/2023 View
Road crossings
Department of Transport and Main Roads, Queensland

On this page:

27/10/2023 View
40 km/h speed limits in high volume pedestrian areas
Transport for NSW

A guide to identifying and implementing 40 km/h speed limits in high volume pedestrian areas.

15/05/2023 View
Safer Speeds Case Study - Fitzroy & Collingwood, Victoria

STREET NAME: Treatment area located between Alexandra Parade (north), Hoddle Street (east), Johnston Street (south) and Nicholson Street (west)

SUBURB: Fitzroy and Collingwood

MUNICIPALITY: City of Yarra, Melbourne

STATE & COUNTRY: Victoria, Australia

SPEED REDUCTION: From 40 km/h to 30 km/h

DATE IMPLEMENTED: January 2020 (trial start October 2018)


  • Implementation of trial area (30km/h) and control area (40km/h)
  • Replacement of speed limit signs with 30km/h signs
  • Pavement marking
  • 91 sites where speeds were recorded

COST: Not available


  • Modest reductions in mean speed: average travel speed fell by 0.3km/h
  • Reductions were more apparent at higher speeds where risk of severe injury or death to vulnerable users is more likely
  • Unexpected speed reductions in adjacent control sites
  • “Treatment effect” showed 11% reduction of likelihood of a vehicle travelling above 40km/h in treatment area and 25% reduction above 50km/h
  • 4% reduction in risk of severe injury for pedestrians
  • Increase of people supporting the 30km/h area from 42.7% to 50.3% within the trial area

Observations of pedestrian and cyclist activity were undertaken at a limited number of locations within the treatment and non-treatment areas during three days before the trial implementation and three days at 12 months into the trial. The small number of locations and survey days limits the ability for general conclusions. The data shows a 12.7% drop in pedestrian activity (largely driven by a single site) and a 27.8% increase in cycling activity.


For some members of the community there was confusion about how the pedestrian priority at the crossings worked, how to determine when to enter and how to exit the roundabout.

There are feelings of frustration caused by inconvenience to the driving experience which are perceived to be caused by the Wombat Crossings.

Intercept surveys at the Wombat Crossings found people using them thought they created a more convenient walking experience however there was still concern about understanding how the crossings worked and the expectations of people walking and people driving.

Information about the benefits of the crossings and the expectations of all road users would assist the community to understand the role they play in creating a pedestrian priority city centre.

Safer Speeds Case Studies - Gold Coast, Queensland
City of Gold Coast


Cavill Avenue/Orchid Avenue, Surfers Paradise
Hedges Avenue/Old Burleigh Road, Mermaid Beach
Garfield Terrace/Northcliffe Terrace, Surfers Paradise
Jefferson Lane, Palm Beach
James Street, Burleigh Heads
Connor Street, Burleigh Heads
Pacific Parade, Tugun
Griffith Street, Coolangatta
Thomas Drive, Chervon Island
Cloyne Road, Southport
Marshall Lane, Southport
Tedder Avenue, Main Road
Broadbeach area – Queensland Avenue, Albert Avenue, Old Burleigh Road, Victoria Avenue, Surf Parade and Charles Avenue

SPEED REDUCTION: Various – some 50 km/h to 40km/h, 50km/h to 30km/h and 40km/h to 30km/h

MUNICIPALITY: City of Gold Coast

STATE & COUNTRY: Queensland, Australia


  • Signs and lines
  • Raised crossings and wombats
  • Contraflow bicycle lanes
  • Placemaking


COST: Noted as low-cost initiative in the Gold Coast Road Safety Plan 2021-2026
Speed reviews done internally (although Department of Transport and Main Roads grants available for these speed reviews) and minimal operational budget required for signs and linemarking and threshold treatments if required.

ADDITIONAL INFO: General support and now going back to some 50km/h to 40km/h zones and undertaking further reviews to reduce to 30km/h


  • Lesson around now going straight to 30km/h, rather than 50km/h to 40km/h and then second review 40km/h to 30km/h (this has come from taking a conservative approach initially and now being more comfortable with going straight to 30km/h following the speed limit review process documented in MUTCD Part 4.
  • Tools now support 30km/h (MUTCD Part 4)
  • Importance of looking at a broader area, get the data and use engineering knowhow to develop consistent precinct wide approach for speed limits
  • Queensland Police Service supportive of 30km/h (note they have had challenges enforcing loud cars in café precinct but can enforce speed breach)
  • Importance of working with community and Councillors, and that when the speed reduction requests come via their offices, they are more supportive/less concerned
  • Value of placemaking project supporting traffic speed changes in centre projects
19/07/2022 View
CWANZ Fact Sheet: Safety

Research has repeatedly shown that the more people walking or riding a bike, the safer it is for everyone. Reducing the number of cars and speed limits in built-up areas reduces the risk of death or injury to our most vulnerable road users. Growth in cycling is best achieved through separated cycle lanes and reduced speed limits.

28/04/2022 View
Bike It Baw Baw: Cyclist Safety Issues in the Baw Baw Shire
Monash University Accident Research Centre

The aim of the study was to identify the issues in Baw Baw Shire in Gippsland, Victoria, related to the safety of on-road cyclists. Safety concerns specific to the Baw Baw Shire are identified and potential countermeasures that may improve cyclist safety are discussed.

12/04/2022 View
Cyclists and red lights – a study of the behaviour of commuter cyclist in Melbourne
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

The primary aim of this research was to investigate the behaviours of cyclists and their interactions with vehicles at signalised intersections.The results focus on the three types of behaviour at red lights. Males were more likely to continue through the red light than females and the majority of males who rode through red lights were runners. The findings are important as they differentiate between the types of red light running behaviour and highlight factors influencing cyclists risk exposure.

12/04/2022 View
Cyclist bunch riding: a review of the literature
Monash University Accident Research Centre

This report is a review of the literature on cyclists who ride in large groups or bunches on public roads. The research was conducted following the Victorian State Coroner’s investigation into the death of an elderly pedestrian, following a collision with a cyclist who was riding in a bunch. The aims of the review were to understand the behaviour of bunch riders, particularly the behaviours that may contribute to increased risk of collision and to make recommendations for effective enforcement and countermeasure strategies for this road user group.

12/04/2022 View
Painting a designated space: cyclist and driver compliance at cycling infrastructure at intersections
Amy Gillett Foundation

This study evaluated cyclist and driver compliance at cycling infrastructure at signalised intersections to determine the effectiveness of the infrastructure in creating a designated space for cyclists. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted during peak travel times at six sites in Melbourne in March 2009.

12/04/2022 View
Bicycle helmet use, an excerpt from – Cyclist safety: an investigation of how cyclists and drivers interact on the roads
Amy Gillett Foundation

The use of bicycle helmets by cyclists is widely supported amongst the injury prevention and health promotion communities.
There is extensive research that addresses the efficacy of helmets in reducing the severity of head injuries and several researchers who dispute the need or efficacy of helmets.

12/04/2022 View
Cyclist safety: an investigation of how cyclists and drivers interact on the roads
Monash University

Cyclists are vulnerable road users and the most severe injury outcomes for on-road cyclists are from collisions involving a motor vehicle. Research undertaken in this thesis aimed to identify contributing factors in unsafe cyclist-driver events to inform efforts to reduce the incidence of cyclist-driver crashes and cyclist injury severity outcomes.

12/04/2022 View
Riding through red lights: The rate, characteristics and risk factors of non-compliant urban commuter cyclists
Accident Analysis & Prevention

This study determined the rate and associated factors of red light infringement among urban commuter cyclists. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted using a covert video camera to record cyclists at 10 sites across metropolitan Melbourne, Australia from October 2008 to April 2009.

12/04/2022 View
Making bike safety research count
Amy Gillett Foundation

Given the lack of participation data and the underreporting of cyclist injury crashes, it is difficult to determine the magnitude of cyclist road trauma with any precision. This lack of data highlights the neglect in Australia of cyclist-focused monitoring that is essential to understanding injury rates and factors that contribute to cyclist crashes. The Amy Gillett Foundation (AGF) has developed a systematic policy development approach that identifies two issues: safe overtaking distances and cyclist-open vehicle door crashes, explored in this paper.

12/04/2022 View
MACCS Monash Alfred cyclist crash study
Monash University Accident Research Centre

Current primary data sources on mechanisms of Victorian bicycle crashes lack sufficient detail to draw clear conclusions on crash causation. Nor are these data adequate to link specific crash mechanisms to characteristic injury outcomes. The Monash Alfred Cycle Crash Study (MACCS) aimed to redress these data deficiencies through piloting an in-depth crash investigation study focused on cyclists. In-depth data were collected from 158 patients presenting to The Alfred and Sandringham Hospital Emergency Departments who were riders of bicycles involved in a crash. Information collected covered pre-crash factors pertaining to environment and cyclist/driver behaviour, crash mechanism, and injury outcomes from hospital records. Analyses of these data provide insight on crash causation and associated injury burdens which can inform the development, prioritisation and targeting of effective countermeasures.

12/04/2022 View
Why do cyclists infringe at red lights? An investigation of Australian cyclists’ reasons for red light infringement
Accident Analysis & Prevention

This study investigated the behavioural, attitudinal and traffic factors contributing to red light infringement by Australian cyclists using a national online survey. The survey was conducted from February to May 2010. In total, 2061 cyclists completed the survey and 37.3% reported that they had ridden through a signalised intersection during the red light phase. The main predictive characteristics for infringement were: gender with males more likely to offend than females (OR: 1.54, CI: 1.22–1.94); age with older cyclists less likely to infringe compared to younger cyclists 18–29 years (30–49 yrs: OR: 0.71, CI: 0.52–0.96; 50+ yrs: OR: 0.51, CI: 0.35–0.74), and; crash involvement with cyclists more likely to infringe at red lights if they had not previously been involved in a bicycle–vehicle crash while riding (OR: 1.35; CI: 1.10–1.65). The main reasons given for red light infringement were: to turn left (32.0%); because the inductive loop detector did not detect their bike (24.2%); when there was no other road users present (16.6%); at a pedestrian crossing (10.7%); and ‘Other’ (16.5%). A multinomial logistic regression model was constructed to examine the associations between cyclist characteristics and reasons for infringement. Findings suggest that some cyclists are motivated to infringe by their perception that their behaviour is safe and that infrastructure factors were associated with infringement. Ways to manage this, potentially risky, behaviour including behaviour programmes, more cyclist-inclusive infrastructure and enforcement are discussed.

12/04/2022 View
Road crashes involving bike riders in Victoria, 2002–2012
Amy Gillett Foundation

This study is a multi-year analysis of bicycle rider crash statistics undertaken using Victorian CrashStats. It clearly shows that there are distinct differences in the crash profiles of fatal bike rider crashes compared to non-fatal crashes.

12/04/2022 View
Cycle Safe Communities
Amy Gillett Foundation

Cycle Safe Communities provides community groups, councils and organisations access to cycle safety campaign resources.

Developed by the Amy Gillett Foundation, Cycle Safe Communities enables consistent messaging about bike rider safety to be adopted and embedded in the Australian community. Everyone has the right to ride safely for work and play. A safer future is possible!

12/04/2022 View
CrowdSpot and the Amy Gillett Foundation

Victoria is still striving to become a world-class cycling location. A lack of safety is the major barrier to people getting on their bikes. How it feels to ride a bicycle has an impact on people's willingness to ride.

BikeSpot 2020 provides the opportunity for all Victorians to share their perceptions of cycling safety and help develop new insights for the prioritisation of cycling safety improvements.

07/04/2022 View
Research Report 431 The mechanisms and types of non-motor vehicle injuries to pedestrians in the transport system and indicated infrastructure implications
Waka Kotahi NZ Transport Agency

Research carried out in 2008-2010 examined the quantum and causes of non-motor vehicle injuries to pedestrians through a structured interview survey. Pedestrians sustaining injuries in locations away from the road network (eg in parks) were excluded, as the emphasis was on the role of road and footpath features. The highest proportion of trips and falls (34%) was sustained while stepping over a kerb. A further 18% were caused by irregularities in the path or road surface. Factors that amplified the severity of injuries included the road or path surface, pedestrians' inattention, type of footwear worn, and whether walking or running. Two main issues were identified from the study. These were:

  1. people tripped and fell more often on poorly maintained surfaces as opposed to poorly designed areas
  2. the severity of the injuries is directly related to the surface.

The study recommends improving the definition of kerbing in key pedestrian areas and improving the maintenance regime of footpaths and roads used by pedestrians, eg crossings. The study also found that it is necessary to instigate research to provide improved data and analysis tools to prioritise such countermeasures vis-a-vis other uses of road safety funds and improved data for input into such analysis tools. Further, a national guide is needed for pedestrian road safety audits and inspections covering both motor vehicle and non-motor vehicle risk.

07/04/2022 View
Standard safety intervention toolkit
Waka Kotahi NZ Transport Agency

The Standard Safety Intervention toolkit provides guidance for road safety practitioners on the effectiveness and value-for-money cost range of proven safety interventions to reduce the number of people killed and seriously injured on Aotearoa roads.

07/04/2022 View
Access Control Devices
Waka Kotahi NZ Transport Agency

Guidance on the design, installation and management of access control devices on facilities where cyclists are permitted to be present.

18/10/2021 View
Cycle Safety
Waka Kotahi NZ Transport Agency

A few simple tips to stay safe when sharing the road.

12/08/2021 View
Cyclist Road Rules and Safety
Department for Infrastructure and Transport, South Australia

While cyclists have the same rights and responsibilities as other road users, they are more vulnerable when travelling on the road. Both cyclists and motorists need to consider each other and share the road safely.

14/07/2021 View
Towards Zero Action Plan 2018-22
Department of Infrastructure, Planning and Logistics, NT

This five-year road safety action plan focuses on key priority areas to reduce the rate of fatality and serious injury on Territory roads.

12/07/2021 View
Reporting a hazard or crash
Department of Transport, WA

Timely reporting of hazards from the community is vital to maintaining our cycling infrastructure. Find out what hazards to report and how to do so.

07/07/2021 View
Bicycle rules, standards and safety (Western Australia)
Department of Transport, WA

Before starting to ride, bicycle riders should be familiar with bicycle standards and equipment, legislation for use of shared paths, roads, intersections and footpaths.

07/07/2021 View