This page contains some key resources on walking and cycling, including an archive of the documents produced by the Australian Bicycle Council.

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Australian Transport Assessment and Planning (ATAP) Mode Specific Guidance: M4 Active Travel
Australian Transport Assessment and Planning (ATAP)

At a glance:

  • This document (ATAP Part M4) provides specialist Mode Specific Guidance on active travel. It is supported by a Background Report (M4-BR) in the ATAP Technical Support Library covering detailed and technical material.
  • The defining characteristic of active travel is that it is ‘human powered mobility’. In this guidance, we interpret active travel as comprising primarily walking and cycling, but can also include use of e-bikes, skateboards, roller skates, roller blades and non-electric scooters. While e-scooters and e-skateboards are not ‘human-powered’, they are also considered here because they share some of the facilities provided for active travel, and hence experience associated benefits. The term micro-mobility is increasingly used to refer to all of these modes of transport.
  • Evidence-based assessment of problems and opportunities is the starting point for considering active travel improvements. Problems include: poor weather; lack of infrastructure or appropriate facilities; poor access and connectivity; physical safety concerns; lack of security; inadequate ancillary infrastructure; and poor knowledge and awareness of available facilities and benefits. Opportunities include: reducing health, environmental and road congestion problems by shifting trips from car to active travel; improving accessibility; and reducing inequity for those too young or old to drive, and other people facing transport access difficulties.
  • A wide range of options for addressing a problem or opportunity should be generated and assessed. A full range of options are outlined here. Active travel network design principles are presented: cohesion, directness, safety, comfort, and attractiveness. These assist in the identification of suitable improvement options. A network, and individual improvements, designed with such principles maximises the size of potential mode shifts to active travel.
  • Active travel improvement options are assessed using the same approach used elsewhere in the Guidelines, namely: strategic alignment; and appraisal using cost-benefit analysis of monetised benefits and costs, complemented by non-monetised benefits and costs.
  • Similar to the assessment of other transport modes, benefits consist of:
    • User benefits to active travellers (safety, travel time, private health benefits from physical activity, walking environment amenity benefits)
    • Any resource cost corrections required for unperceived user costs, and
    • External benefits from reductions in external cost to third parties (road decongestion, reduced emissions and improved air pollution, reduced health system costs).
  • The guidance provides explanations of individual benefits, and steps, methodologies and parameter values for their estimation. Appropriate application of the rule-of-a-half to perceived user costs for new active travel trips (diverted from other modes, and newly generated) is also explained.
  • The currently available approaches to active travel demand estimation are summarised: a) simpler estimation approaches (comparison studies, sketch planning, aggregate behaviour studies); b) demand elasticities and diversion rates; c) modelling. Also discussed are: influencing factors, active travel data, tools and other considerations. Active travel demand estimation is a fairly under-developed area, and would benefit significantly from further research and development.
  • Indicative unit costs are provided for various active transport infrastructure elements.
  • Measurement and monitoring of performance of the active travel system is an important final step in the planning and assessment process. It considers whether policies, plans and initiatives are successful in meeting transport system objectives. Performance indicators are required to enable ex-post evaluation and benefit management. The type and timing of monitoring are discussed.
  • The guidance concludes with suggestions of areas requiring further active travel research.
13/11/2023 View
CWANZ Fact Sheet: Economic Benefits of Walking & Cycling

We can save millions of dollars in reduced health and congestion costs by increasing the number of people that walk or ride a bike for every day trips and reducing the number of people that drive.

19/04/2022 View
CWANZ Fact Sheet: Costs of Transport and Physical Inactivity

Congestion costs, transport costs and healthcare costs of physical inactivity.

13/04/2022 View
Walking and Cycling Improvements
Waka Kotahi NZ Transport Agency

Walking and cycling facilities help make cities and towns more liveable and support tourism. During 2018–21 about $390 million will be invested in walking and cycling initiatives, which will extend networks across the country and improve connections to a range of transport choices. This will improve safety and accessibility, and make a significant contribution to the revitalisation of town and city centres.

Improvments will be made to walking and cycling facilities along state highway corridors up and down the country, as part of our state highway improvement programme. This includes landscaping, new bridges and underpasses to establish safe routes to encourage more people to walk or cycle.

07/04/2022 View
Benefits management guidance
Waka Kotahi NZ Transport Agency

This guidance is to help transport planners, business case writers and anyone involved in transport investment understand the Land Transport Benefits Framework and how to use benefits management in their work.

07/04/2022 View
Cycle Facility Cost Estimation Tool
Waka Kotahi NZ Transport Agency

Tool to calculate and compare the rough order cost of a range of cycle route, facility and signalised intersection options.

24/09/2021 View
Transport for NSW Economic Parameter Values
Transport for NSW

This document recommends economic parameter values for common benefits and costs in transport economic appraisals. By providing best-practice approaches and economic parameter values, this document supports the consistent application of cost-benefit analysis (CBA) across the NSW Transport cluster.

15/07/2021 View
Economic Parameter Values
Transport for NSW

This spreadheet provides all tables in the Transport for NSW Economic Parameter Values.

15/07/2021 View
Economic Assessment of Cycling
Department of Transport and Main Roads, Queensland

Infographic showing the growth in cycling in conjunction with the investment in cycling infrastructure within inner Brisbane.
Maps are based on data collected as part of the 5 yearly census by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. The data is drawn from the questions relating to place of employment, and the method of transport used to get to work.

09/07/2021 View