This page contains some key resources on walking and cycling, including an archive of the documents produced by the Australian Bicycle Council.

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Australian Transport Assessment and Planning (ATAP) Mode Specific Guidance: M4 Active Travel
Australian Transport Assessment and Planning (ATAP)

At a glance:

  • This document (ATAP Part M4) provides specialist Mode Specific Guidance on active travel. It is supported by a Background Report (M4-BR) in the ATAP Technical Support Library covering detailed and technical material.
  • The defining characteristic of active travel is that it is ‘human powered mobility’. In this guidance, we interpret active travel as comprising primarily walking and cycling, but can also include use of e-bikes, skateboards, roller skates, roller blades and non-electric scooters. While e-scooters and e-skateboards are not ‘human-powered’, they are also considered here because they share some of the facilities provided for active travel, and hence experience associated benefits. The term micro-mobility is increasingly used to refer to all of these modes of transport.
  • Evidence-based assessment of problems and opportunities is the starting point for considering active travel improvements. Problems include: poor weather; lack of infrastructure or appropriate facilities; poor access and connectivity; physical safety concerns; lack of security; inadequate ancillary infrastructure; and poor knowledge and awareness of available facilities and benefits. Opportunities include: reducing health, environmental and road congestion problems by shifting trips from car to active travel; improving accessibility; and reducing inequity for those too young or old to drive, and other people facing transport access difficulties.
  • A wide range of options for addressing a problem or opportunity should be generated and assessed. A full range of options are outlined here. Active travel network design principles are presented: cohesion, directness, safety, comfort, and attractiveness. These assist in the identification of suitable improvement options. A network, and individual improvements, designed with such principles maximises the size of potential mode shifts to active travel.
  • Active travel improvement options are assessed using the same approach used elsewhere in the Guidelines, namely: strategic alignment; and appraisal using cost-benefit analysis of monetised benefits and costs, complemented by non-monetised benefits and costs.
  • Similar to the assessment of other transport modes, benefits consist of:
    • User benefits to active travellers (safety, travel time, private health benefits from physical activity, walking environment amenity benefits)
    • Any resource cost corrections required for unperceived user costs, and
    • External benefits from reductions in external cost to third parties (road decongestion, reduced emissions and improved air pollution, reduced health system costs).
  • The guidance provides explanations of individual benefits, and steps, methodologies and parameter values for their estimation. Appropriate application of the rule-of-a-half to perceived user costs for new active travel trips (diverted from other modes, and newly generated) is also explained.
  • The currently available approaches to active travel demand estimation are summarised: a) simpler estimation approaches (comparison studies, sketch planning, aggregate behaviour studies); b) demand elasticities and diversion rates; c) modelling. Also discussed are: influencing factors, active travel data, tools and other considerations. Active travel demand estimation is a fairly under-developed area, and would benefit significantly from further research and development.
  • Indicative unit costs are provided for various active transport infrastructure elements.
  • Measurement and monitoring of performance of the active travel system is an important final step in the planning and assessment process. It considers whether policies, plans and initiatives are successful in meeting transport system objectives. Performance indicators are required to enable ex-post evaluation and benefit management. The type and timing of monitoring are discussed.
  • The guidance concludes with suggestions of areas requiring further active travel research.
13/11/2023 View
Disability Standards for Accessible Public Transport 2002 (Transport Standards)
Department of Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development, Communications and the Arts

The Disability Discrimination Act 1992(the Act) is in place to eliminate discrimination against people with disability as far as possible, and to promote community acceptance of the principle that people with disability have the same fundamental rights as all members of the community. The Act provides that direct and indirect discrimination on the basis of disability is unlawful in a broad range of areas of public life, including and access to goods, services and facilities.

The Disability Standards for Accessible Public Transport 2002 (Transport Standards) provide requirements for public transport operators and providers to make their services accessible and remove discrimination against people with disability. The Transport Standards took effect on 23 October 2002.

The Transport Standards apply to train, tram, bus and coach, ferry, taxi and aviation services and are designed to provide certainty to providers and operators of public transport services and infrastructure about their responsibilities under the Disability Discrimination Act 1992.

13/10/2023 View
National Walking and Cycling Participation Survey 2023

The National Walking and Cycling Participation Survey (NWCPS) provides insight into walking and cycling activity across Australia and is a successor to the National Cycling Participation Survey which was conducted biennially from 2011 to 2019.

22/09/2023 View
Active Travel to Schools Programs

An overview of active travel to schools programs across Australia and New Zealand, their key features and what makes them successful. Also includes a comparison of the number of children that use active travel to school from around the world.

23/08/2023 View
Active Travel to School Program: National Walk Safely to School Day
Pedestrian Council of Australia


  • Online resources


COST: Not available. Free for schools.


30/01/2023 View
Active Travel to School Program: Bikes for Schools


  • Libraries of donated bikes that are owned by schools and can be used by all students
  • AusCycling Foundation Instructor training to teachers and parents, so bike education can be embedded as part of the day-to-day activities at the school


COST: Not available


Ride Nation funds:

  • The framework and set up for a bike donation day or connection with a partner that will accept and repurpose donated bikes to create the library.
  • Access to the online instructor training course and the conduct of the practical session and assessment onsite at the school at a time convenient to the participants.
  • Lesson plans and resources for the Ride Nation Schools bike education program, which consists of three levels – Skills, Confidence and Explore.
  • Ongoing support for the school to keep providing bike education for all students.

Plus they:

  • Facilitate the connection with community mentors to lead the donation drive and ensure the donated bikes are in good working order.


16/01/2023 View
Active Travel to School Program: Ride Nation Schools


Ride Nation Schools is a learn-to-ride Bike Education Program delivered in schools Australia-wide. It is a fun and interactive learning experience that teaches young people to develop their riding skills and confidence – supporting kids in their independence and giving parents peace of mind.


COST: Not available


There are three levels of bike education programs in schools:

Ride Nation - Skills (Playground): Recommended for grades 2-3, this 4–6-week program focuses on developing the essential bike control skills braking, balancing and riding. The skills learnt in this program will allow them to ride around in traffic free environments (school yard, park and around the block).

Ride Nation - Confidence (Pathways): Recommended for grades 3-5. Once grasping the essential bike control skills, participants are ready to develop their riding confidence. This 4-6-week program focuses on riding and situational awareness, providing students with the skills and competences to enable them to start riding on footpaths and shared pathway in low traffic environments. This program is ideal to start having students riding to and from school!

Ride Nation - Explore (Places): Recommended for grades 5-6. Looks at utilising all the skills learnt through previous programs and develop them in different cycling situations and explore their local area by developing road safety and situational awareness. The program consists of four weeks of practical skill development and learning and ends with two local community rides for children to understand what is in their community.


16/01/2023 View
Active Travel to School Program: Ride2School
Bicycle Network


  • Bike education
  • Open Streets: open up the streets around schools at drop-off and pick-up times so that children and adults can walk and ride freely, without having to worry about car traffic
  • MIND.BODY.PEDAL: a series of four workshops in one day for secondary schools that aims to inspire more teenage girls to get active through bike riding
  • ActiveSuite: designated routes (ActivePaths) and local maps (ActiveMaps) that identify walking and riding routes within a 5-10 minute zone of a given school


COST: Not available


Suite of programs to help break down the barriers that prevent more students from staying active on their journey to school. Culminates in National Ride2School Day.


09/01/2023 View
Safer Speeds Case Study - Fitzroy & Collingwood, Victoria

STREET NAME: Treatment area located between Alexandra Parade (north), Hoddle Street (east), Johnston Street (south) and Nicholson Street (west)

SUBURB: Fitzroy and Collingwood

MUNICIPALITY: City of Yarra, Melbourne

STATE & COUNTRY: Victoria, Australia

SPEED REDUCTION: From 40 km/h to 30 km/h

DATE IMPLEMENTED: January 2020 (trial start October 2018)


  • Implementation of trial area (30km/h) and control area (40km/h)
  • Replacement of speed limit signs with 30km/h signs
  • Pavement marking
  • 91 sites where speeds were recorded

COST: Not available


  • Modest reductions in mean speed: average travel speed fell by 0.3km/h
  • Reductions were more apparent at higher speeds where risk of severe injury or death to vulnerable users is more likely
  • Unexpected speed reductions in adjacent control sites
  • “Treatment effect” showed 11% reduction of likelihood of a vehicle travelling above 40km/h in treatment area and 25% reduction above 50km/h
  • 4% reduction in risk of severe injury for pedestrians
  • Increase of people supporting the 30km/h area from 42.7% to 50.3% within the trial area

Observations of pedestrian and cyclist activity were undertaken at a limited number of locations within the treatment and non-treatment areas during three days before the trial implementation and three days at 12 months into the trial. The small number of locations and survey days limits the ability for general conclusions. The data shows a 12.7% drop in pedestrian activity (largely driven by a single site) and a 27.8% increase in cycling activity.


For some members of the community there was confusion about how the pedestrian priority at the crossings worked, how to determine when to enter and how to exit the roundabout.

There are feelings of frustration caused by inconvenience to the driving experience which are perceived to be caused by the Wombat Crossings.

Intercept surveys at the Wombat Crossings found people using them thought they created a more convenient walking experience however there was still concern about understanding how the crossings worked and the expectations of people walking and people driving.

Information about the benefits of the crossings and the expectations of all road users would assist the community to understand the role they play in creating a pedestrian priority city centre.

CWANZ Design Innovations Working Group Practice Note: Contraflow Cycling in Quiet Streets

The CWANZ Design Innovations Working Group undertook a review of contraflow cycling lanes in quiet streets. This report presents the evidence, technical advice, and implementation and design. Examples of streets with contraflow cycling lanes in Australia and New Zealand are given.

06/10/2022 View
Safer Speeds Case Studies - Gold Coast, Queensland
City of Gold Coast


Cavill Avenue/Orchid Avenue, Surfers Paradise
Hedges Avenue/Old Burleigh Road, Mermaid Beach
Garfield Terrace/Northcliffe Terrace, Surfers Paradise
Jefferson Lane, Palm Beach
James Street, Burleigh Heads
Connor Street, Burleigh Heads
Pacific Parade, Tugun
Griffith Street, Coolangatta
Thomas Drive, Chervon Island
Cloyne Road, Southport
Marshall Lane, Southport
Tedder Avenue, Main Road
Broadbeach area – Queensland Avenue, Albert Avenue, Old Burleigh Road, Victoria Avenue, Surf Parade and Charles Avenue

SPEED REDUCTION: Various – some 50 km/h to 40km/h, 50km/h to 30km/h and 40km/h to 30km/h

MUNICIPALITY: City of Gold Coast

STATE & COUNTRY: Queensland, Australia


  • Signs and lines
  • Raised crossings and wombats
  • Contraflow bicycle lanes
  • Placemaking


COST: Noted as low-cost initiative in the Gold Coast Road Safety Plan 2021-2026
Speed reviews done internally (although Department of Transport and Main Roads grants available for these speed reviews) and minimal operational budget required for signs and linemarking and threshold treatments if required.

ADDITIONAL INFO: General support and now going back to some 50km/h to 40km/h zones and undertaking further reviews to reduce to 30km/h


  • Lesson around now going straight to 30km/h, rather than 50km/h to 40km/h and then second review 40km/h to 30km/h (this has come from taking a conservative approach initially and now being more comfortable with going straight to 30km/h following the speed limit review process documented in MUTCD Part 4.
  • Tools now support 30km/h (MUTCD Part 4)
  • Importance of looking at a broader area, get the data and use engineering knowhow to develop consistent precinct wide approach for speed limits
  • Queensland Police Service supportive of 30km/h (note they have had challenges enforcing loud cars in café precinct but can enforce speed breach)
  • Importance of working with community and Councillors, and that when the speed reduction requests come via their offices, they are more supportive/less concerned
  • Value of placemaking project supporting traffic speed changes in centre projects
19/07/2022 View
CWANZ Design Innovations Working Group: Use of Banana Deflection Rails

The CWANZ Design Innovations Working Group undertook a review of the use of banana deflection rails (banana bars) in Australia. In undertaking this review, they considered the Traffic and Road Use Management Volume1–Guide to Traffic Management Part 6: Intersections, Interchanges and Crossings (2020) prepared by the Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads (TMR), and Municipal Infrastructure Standards (MIS) 05 – Active Travel Facilities Design, prepared by Transport Canberra City Services (TCCS).

12/07/2022 View
CWANZ Fact Sheet: Safety

Research has repeatedly shown that the more people walking or riding a bike, the safer it is for everyone. Reducing the number of cars and speed limits in built-up areas reduces the risk of death or injury to our most vulnerable road users. Growth in cycling is best achieved through separated cycle lanes and reduced speed limits.

28/04/2022 View
CWANZ Fact Sheet: Economic Benefits of Walking & Cycling

We can save millions of dollars in reduced health and congestion costs by increasing the number of people that walk or ride a bike for every day trips and reducing the number of people that drive.

19/04/2022 View
CWANZ Fact Sheet: Benefits of Lower Speed Limits

 Benefits of lower speed limits in high activity areas and local access streets. What happens when vehicles travel more slowly in areas with lots of pedestrians and bike riders?

19/04/2022 View
CWANZ Fact Sheet: Health Benefits of Active Transport

Physical inactivity is one of the top 10 risk factors contributing to disease in Australia, contributing to 2.5% of the total burden of disease and is the 5th highest behavioural risk factor, behind tobacco use, diet, alcohol and illicit drug use.

19/04/2022 View
CWANZ Fact Sheet: Costs of Transport and Physical Inactivity

Congestion costs, transport costs and healthcare costs of physical inactivity.

13/04/2022 View
CWANZ Fact Sheet: More People Bike Riding - Keys to Success

When bike riding is easy, safe and more convenient than other transport options, more people will ride. Increasing physical activity improves health, saves costs and takes the
pressure off other forms of transport, benefitting the entire community.

13/04/2022 View
CWANZ Factsheet: More People Walking - Keys to Success

Walking is for everyone, regardless of age and ability. Walkers include people on foot, people with crutches, people with canes, people in wheelchairs, and people in mobility scooters. Evidence consistently shows that by providing pedestrian-friendly neighbourhoods, quality public spaces, a mix of land uses, and housing densities, more people will walk, giving health, environmental, transport and community benefits.

13/04/2022 View
Bicycle helmet use, an excerpt from – Cyclist safety: an investigation of how cyclists and drivers interact on the roads
Amy Gillett Foundation

The use of bicycle helmets by cyclists is widely supported amongst the injury prevention and health promotion communities.
There is extensive research that addresses the efficacy of helmets in reducing the severity of head injuries and several researchers who dispute the need or efficacy of helmets.

12/04/2022 View
Making bike safety research count
Amy Gillett Foundation

Given the lack of participation data and the underreporting of cyclist injury crashes, it is difficult to determine the magnitude of cyclist road trauma with any precision. This lack of data highlights the neglect in Australia of cyclist-focused monitoring that is essential to understanding injury rates and factors that contribute to cyclist crashes. The Amy Gillett Foundation (AGF) has developed a systematic policy development approach that identifies two issues: safe overtaking distances and cyclist-open vehicle door crashes, explored in this paper.

12/04/2022 View
Why do cyclists infringe at red lights? An investigation of Australian cyclists’ reasons for red light infringement
Accident Analysis & Prevention

This study investigated the behavioural, attitudinal and traffic factors contributing to red light infringement by Australian cyclists using a national online survey. The survey was conducted from February to May 2010. In total, 2061 cyclists completed the survey and 37.3% reported that they had ridden through a signalised intersection during the red light phase. The main predictive characteristics for infringement were: gender with males more likely to offend than females (OR: 1.54, CI: 1.22–1.94); age with older cyclists less likely to infringe compared to younger cyclists 18–29 years (30–49 yrs: OR: 0.71, CI: 0.52–0.96; 50+ yrs: OR: 0.51, CI: 0.35–0.74), and; crash involvement with cyclists more likely to infringe at red lights if they had not previously been involved in a bicycle–vehicle crash while riding (OR: 1.35; CI: 1.10–1.65). The main reasons given for red light infringement were: to turn left (32.0%); because the inductive loop detector did not detect their bike (24.2%); when there was no other road users present (16.6%); at a pedestrian crossing (10.7%); and ‘Other’ (16.5%). A multinomial logistic regression model was constructed to examine the associations between cyclist characteristics and reasons for infringement. Findings suggest that some cyclists are motivated to infringe by their perception that their behaviour is safe and that infrastructure factors were associated with infringement. Ways to manage this, potentially risky, behaviour including behaviour programmes, more cyclist-inclusive infrastructure and enforcement are discussed.

12/04/2022 View
Cycling Futures
University of Adelaide Press

The growing interest in cycling in Australia and New Zealand, as in other parts of the world, is underpinned by three major concerns: health and fitness, congestion and liveability, pollution and climate change.

Australasian researchers, practitioners, policy makers and community members are engaged in a global discussion on the role of cycling in addressing these concerns. Contributors to (this) book report on and extend this discussion as they explore the insights generated locally and internationally on the past, present and future of cycling.

The focus of the first half of the book is largely on the current engagement with cycling, challenges faced by existing and would-be cyclists and the issues cycling might address. The second half of the book is concerned with strategies and processes of change. Contributors working from different ontological positions reflect on changing socio-spatial relations to enable the broadest possible participation in cycling.

12/04/2022 View
Cycle Safe Communities
Amy Gillett Foundation

Cycle Safe Communities provides community groups, councils and organisations access to cycle safety campaign resources.

Developed by the Amy Gillett Foundation, Cycle Safe Communities enables consistent messaging about bike rider safety to be adopted and embedded in the Australian community. Everyone has the right to ride safely for work and play. A safer future is possible!

12/04/2022 View
Cycle Aware
University of Adelaide, Monash University and Queensland University of Technology

Cycle Aware is an Australia wide research project looking at how drivers learn to interact with cyclists. It focuses on the education and training received by people in the early stages of driving such as pre-learner, learner and probationary drivers. The ultimate aim of the project is to foster safer driver-cyclist interactions.

07/04/2022 View
Sharing Roads Safely: Vulnerable Road User Training
Amy Gillett Foundation

Sharing Roads Safely is a training course developed suitable for heavy vehicle drivers to increase safe interactions with vulnerable road users, specifically motorbike riders, cyclists and pedestrians.

Based on international best practice, the course was developed in consultation with the government, the heavy vehicle industry and vulnerable road user groups for drivers in Australia.

Sharing Roads Safely is a recognised training course and meets compliance requirements for vulnerable road user awareness training.

  • Designed for Australian drivers
  • Meets government project contract requirements for driver training
07/04/2022 View
Research report 452 Predicting walkability
Waka Kotahi NZ Transport Agency

This research provides a number of mathematical formulas for predicting the quality of the walking environment from the perspective of the user using operational and physical variables. The formulas were derived by combining the perception data gathered from participants in the community street reviews with measurements of the walking environment.

The two main areas that were researched to enable the derivation of formulas were:

  • when walking along the road (path length)
  • when crossing the road (road crossing).

This research describes the process for obtaining the data and deriving the formulas, and recommends the formulas most suitable for practitioner use.

07/04/2022 View
Research Report 359 Valuing the health benefits of active modes
Waka Kotahi NZ Transport Agency

This report seeks to provide a per-kilometre value for the health benefits of active transport modes (such as walking and cycling) that is compatible with the Land Transport New Zealand Economic Evaluation Manual Volume 2 (EEM2). The first two sections of the report begin by explaining the scope of the project and the background. Section 3 investigates the evidence of the connection between physical activity and health outcomes. Section 4 clarifies the role of active transport modes as physical activity, and reports the New Zealand-specific data about active transport mode engagement. Section 5 gives a brief comparative summary of the literature review of cost-benefit analyses and valuation techniques used overseas to value the health benefits of active modes. This report uses population attributable fractions (PAF) to estimate the annual burden of mortality and morbidity costs per inactive adult. Annual estimates of the costs of inactivity are applied to the New Zealand adult population using a weighted sum to establish a per-kilometre value for each mode. The valuation presented in this report is limited by a poverty of data, but the final values are considered to be a reasonable estimate of the health benefits of active modes. While further research is recommended to obtain more precise estimates of the costs of inactivity in New Zealand, it is considered that the values presented in this report are a sound interim estimate for inclusion in the EEM2.

07/04/2022 View
Programme/project logic models
Waka Kotahi NZ Transport Agency

The links provide different guides to developing programme/project logic models.

07/04/2022 View
Healthy Streets
Healthy Streets

Towns and cities everywhere are facing the challenge of keeping communities healthy and happy. Healthy Streets® offers clients around the world an evidence-based approach to creating fairer, sustainable and attractive urban spaces.

07/04/2022 View
National Walking and Cycling Participation Survey 2021 - Final Report
Cycling & Walking Australia and New Zealand

The National Walking and Cycling Participation Survey (NWCPS) provides insight into walking and cycling activity across Australia and is a successor to the National Cycling Participation Survey which was conducted biennially from 2011 to 2019.

02/09/2021 View
National Cycling Participation Survey (NCPS)

The National Cycling Participation Survey (NCPS) is a standardised survey that has been repeated biennially since March/April 2011, with minor changes to the survey structure between 2011 and 2013. The NCPS provides data on cycling participation at a national level and allows for estimates of participation for each state and territory, and the capital cities and non-capital areas within each state and territory.

20/05/2021 View
Australasian Pedestrian Crossing Facility Selection Tool

The Pedestrian Facility Selection Tool is designed to help Australian and New Zealand practitioners select the most appropriate type of pedestrian crossing based on walkability, safety and economic outcomes.

20/05/2021 View