Resources

This page contains some key resources on walking and cycling, including an archive of the documents produced by the Australian Bicycle Council.

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Date Added
Active Travel to School: Ride or Walk to School (Safe Cycle)
Transport Canberra and City Services

PROGRAM FEATURES: 

  • Free access to sets of loan bikes for five weeks
  • Safe Cycle: an Australian Curriculum aligned classroom program for students to learn about bike safety and skills
  • TQI Accredited Professional Learning workshops or online training
  • Resources and support to run four active travel events in your school each year (National Ride2School Day, Walk Safely to School Day, Winter Walk to School Week and Ride Safely to School Week)
  • Personalised maps to show the best route to your school
  • Support from a dedicated program manager.

DATE IMPLEMENTED: 1 December 2012

COST OF PROGRAM: $75,000 per year

COST FOR USERS: Free

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:

The Ride or Walk to School program (primary) and It's Your Move Safe Cycle program (high school) provides ACT schools with safe cycling resources. It is aligned to the Australian curriculum and includes teacher training and information for parents. The aim is to increase the number of children walking and riding to and from school.

Part of program incorporating infrastructure, signage (Active Streets), and safety at school crossings (School Crossing Supervisors) to encourage children to use active travel to get to and from school.

RESULTS OF EVALUATION:

Report

14/03/2023 View
Active Travel to School Program: School Transport Infrastructure Program
Department of Transport and Main Roads, Queensland

PROGRAM FEATURES: 

Funding to improve the safety and operation of schools through new or improved infrastructure at the school and/or on the surrounding road network. E.g.:

  • construction / upgrading of bikeways and shared pathways
  • construction / upgrading of pedestrian pathways, fencing and barriers
  • Installation / upgrading of pedestrian refuges and crossings
  • Provision / upgrading of bike racks / cages / parking facilities and shelters for public and active transport users
  • installation / upgrading of traffic signals and other intersection improvements
  • Installation / upgrading of other signage, line-marking or pavement marking to improve safety or compliance

DATE IMPLEMENTED: Not available

COST OF PROGRAM: Not available. Grants up to $500,000 available

COST TO USER: Funding usually provided on a 50:50 subsidy basis, e.g. co-funding between Department of Transport and Main Roads and local government

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Not available

28/02/2023 View
Safer Speeds Case Study - Padbury, Western Australia

STREET NAME: Local residential streets

SUBURB: Padbury

MUNICIPALITY: City of Joondalup

STATE & COUNTRY: Western Australia, Australia

SPEED REDUCTION: From 50 km/h to 30 km/h

DATE IMPLEMENTED: NA

SCHEME INCLUDED: 

  • Trial period
  • Community consultation prior
  • 30 km/h signs
  • self-enforcing speed limit

COST: Not available

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:

  • Main distributor roads (Giles Avenue, Gibson Avenue, Forrest Road and Alexander Road) stayed at their current speed limits.
  • Main community concern was about impact on travel times. Project demonstrated that impact was minimal, with significant improvements in road safety and pedestrian amenity.

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Not available

28/02/2023
Active Travel to School Program: Walk to School
City of Whittlesea

PROGRAM FEATURES: 

  • Onine resources

DATE IMPLEMENTED: Not available

COST: Not available

14/02/2023 View
Active Travel to School Program: Stroll & Roll
Latrobe City Council

PROGRAM FEATURES: 

  • Bike education facilitator training
  • TagOn or passports to record how student travelled to school
  • Student incentives
  • Installation of infrastructure such as Park & Walk zones
  • Active travel maps
  • Online resources

DATE IMPLEMENTED: 30 January 2022

COST OF PROGRAM: Not available

COST FOR USERS: None

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Not available

14/02/2023 View
Active Travel to School Program: Safe Routes to School Program
WestCycle

PROGRAM FEATURES: 

Part of Bike Friendly Schools Program

DATE IMPLEMENTED: Not available

COST: Not available

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Not available

30/01/2023 View
Active Travel to School Program: Whittlesea Active Travel in Schools
City of Whittlesea

PROGRAM FEATURES: 

  • Active travel study of local schools to determine barriers and enablers
  • Active Travel Forum for council staff
  • Influencing built enviroment to incorporate principles that support walkign and cycling into planning and transport strategies
  • Engage partents to co-creat social marketign campaign
  • Events: local Walk to School competition during Walk to School month
  • Leadership trainng for students
  • Support students to create videos advocating for imporived pedestrian infrastrcuture
  • Link schools to Walk and Ride to School programs
  • Establish School Active Travel Network
  • Resources kit
  • Grants

DATE IMPLEMENTED: 2013

COST: Not available

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Not available

30/01/2023 View
Active Travel to School Program: Port Sorell Primary School - Active Travel to School
Port Sorell Primary School

PROGRAM FEATURES: 

  • Cycle and Bike-path committee
  • Background research
  • Audits of walking and cycling routes
  • Engineering works wo timporve connectivity and safty of paths and road crossings
  • Signage
  • Extra garbage bins along routes
  • Bike racks installed at school and recreational facilities (for after school activities)
  • Newsletter

DATE IMPLEMENTED: 2013

COST: Not available

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Not available

30/01/2023 View
Active Travel to School Program: Safe school travel (SafeST) program
Queensland Government

PROGRAM FEATURES: 

DATE IMPLEMENTED: Not available

COST: Not available

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Not available

30/01/2023 View
Active Travel to School Program: Ipswich Healthy Active School Travel
City of Ipswich

PROGRAM FEATURES: 

  • Active travel social media posts
  • Personalised Active School Travel maps and magnets
  • Hi-Vis vests for walking group leaders

DATE IMPLEMENTED: Not available

COST: Not available

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Not available

30/01/2023 View
Active Travel to School Program: National Walk Safely to School Day
Pedestrian Council of Australia

PROGRAM FEATURES: 

  • Online resources

DATE IMPLEMENTED: Not available

COST: Not available. Free for schools.

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Not available

30/01/2023 View
Active Travel to School Program: Active School Travel, Sunshine Coast Council
Sunshine Coast Council

PROGRAM FEATURES: 

DATE IMPLEMENTED: Not available

COST: Not available

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Not available

30/01/2023 View
Active Travel to School Program: Bike Friendly Schools
WestCycle

PROGRAM FEATURES: 

  • Teacher accreditaion course: cycling
  • Educational resources
  • Teachers network
  • Learn to Ride
  • Bike hire
  • Bike maintenance courses
  • Bike skills sessions
  • Community bike events
  • After school activities
  • Fundraising events
  • Safe Routes to School Program

DATE IMPLEMENTED: Not available

COST: Not available

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Not available

30/01/2023 View
Active Travel to School Program: Your Move Schools
Department of Transport, WA

PROGRAM FEATURES: 

  • Hands up survey
  • Activities
  • Rewards
  • Support
  • Journey planner
  • Events
  • Online resources
  • Grants

DATE IMPLEMENTED: 2017

COST OF PROGRAM: Not available

COST FOR USERS: None

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Not available

30/01/2023 View
Active Travel to School Program: Walk to School Month
City of Moonee Valley

PROGRAM FEATURES: 

  • Journey planner showing:
    • Active paths
    • Park and walk paths
    • Dop off/pick up zones
    • Walking School Bus routes
  • Walking School Bus
  • Walk to School Month (November)
  • School crossing supervisors
  • Online resources

DATE IMPLEMENTED: Not available

COST: Not available

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Not available

30/01/2023 View
Active Travel to School Program: Walk to School (VicHealth)
VicHealth

PROGRAM FEATURES: 

  • Worksheets
  • Online resources
  • Communicatons kit for councils
  • Equirt assessment

DATE IMPLEMENTED: Not available

COST OF PROGRAM: Not available

COST FOR USERS: None

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Not available

30/01/2023 View
Active Travel to School Program: The Healthy Schools Achievement Program
Cancer Council Victoria

PROGRAM FEATURES: 

  • Online resources
  • Support
  • Recognition
  • Snapshot survey

DATE IMPLEMENTED: Not available

COST: Not available. Free for schools.

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Not available

30/01/2023 View
Active Travel to School Program: Move Well, Eat Well (Stride and Ride)
Department of Health, Tasmania

PROGRAM FEATURES: 

Stride and Ride:

  • Free balance bike and helmet sets for early years
  • Action plan
  • Starter pack booklet
  • Annual events
  • Online resources
  • Sample policies

DATE IMPLEMENTED: Not available

COST OF PROGRAM: Not available

COST FOR USERS: None

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Not available

30/01/2023 View
Active Travel to School Program: Way2Go Bike Ed
Department for Infrastructure and Transport, South Australia

PROGRAM FEATURES: 

  • Bike education program for up to 60 schools annually
  • Educates students on Australian Road rules, and how to safely ride on local roads
  • Bike checks undertaken by qualified technicians
  • Bike Ed program is funded via the over arching Way2Go program

DATE IMPLEMENTED:

  • Bike Education in some form has been supported by DIT since early 2000’s.
  • Way2Go Bike Ed commenced in 2009

COST OF PROGRAM: Not available

COST FOR USERS: Free for schools

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Report

30/01/2023 View
Active Travel to School Program: Way2Go
Department for Infrastructure and Transport, South Australia

PROGRAM FEATURES: 

  • Infrastructure program in conjunction with Local Government
  • Funding program for school end of trip facilities
  • Supply of school crossing equipment
  • School travel surveys
  • School enrolment mapping
  • Online resources

DATE IMPLEMENTED: Commenced in 2005 as Safe Routes to School, re-branded to Way2Go in 2009

COST OF PROGRAM: Not available

COST FOR USERS: Free for schools

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Not available

30/01/2023 View
Active Travel to School Program: Go Noosa Schools
Noosa Council

PROGRAM FEATURES: 

  • Support of a dedicated Noosa Council Project Officer
  • Project sponsor, Working group, school champions (students)
  • Site assessment and baseline survey
  • Travel plan, reviewed annually
  • Events (Ride2School Day, Walk to School Day, Bike week etc.)
  • Surveys
  • Resouces
  • Education
  • Meetings and workshops

DATE IMPLEMENTED: Not available

COST: Not available

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Not available

30/01/2023 View
Active Travel to School Program: Active School Travel, City of Gold Coast
City of Gold Coast

PROGRAM FEATURES: 

Schools that join the program receive a suite of resources including free toolkits, incentives and support. Including:

  • Fact sheets
  • Active School Travel Committee

Educational programs:

  • Riding Rulz bike skills
  • Police Citizens Youth Club bike skills
  • BUS IT Bus skills workshop

DATE IMPLEMENTED: Not available

COST: Not available

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Not available

Case studies

30/01/2023 View
Active Travel to School Program: Active School Travel Program, Brisbane City Council
Brisbane City Council

PROGRAM FEATURES: 

The Active School Travel (AST) program offers Brisbane primary schools a suite of free resources, tools and incentives to enable students, parents, carers and teachers to leave the car at home and actively travel to school.

Participating schools will receive access resources, including:

  • a dedicated Council expert tol work closely with the school’s AST committee and provide specialist advice on the best ways to increase active travel
  • rewards and incentives
  • customised active travel maps with identified active travel routes
  • assembly performances
  • free 60 minute bike and scooter skills training programs with a professional coach
  • RACQ Streets Ahead road safety sessions
  • bus orientation sessions for senior students covering essential skills such as hailing a bus, using a go card and expected behaviour on public transport
  • survey templates and materials for your weekly active travel days
  • tools to showcase the school's achievements
  • interclass and interschool competitions
  • curriculum links for teachers to use in the classroom.

Other resources:

  • Online active travel tips

DATE IMPLEMENTED: 2004

COST OF PROGRAM: FY 2022-23 $699,000

COST FOR USERS: Free for schools.

RESULTS OF EVALUATION:

Testimonials

Case study:

Since 2004, 168 schools and more than 127,000 students have participated in the program.

Achievements in 2021:

  • schools achieved over 60% active travel on a regular basis;
  • 245 kids attended bike skills sessions and 379 attended scooter skills sessions; and
  • 83% of parents felt their child’s road safety knowledge improved since being in the AST program.

Approximately 90% of AST committee members agreed the AST program helped to increase student physical activity levels and foster community cohesion at their school.

30/01/2023 View
Active Travel to School Program: Active School Travel, Bicycle Queensland
Bicycle Queensland

PROGRAM FEATURES: 

Resources for schools:

  • Education & training for children
  • Training for teachers
  • Maps or journey planner
  • Online resources (e.g. fact sheets, information, tips)
  • Grants

Online resouces:

  • How to buy a kid's bike
  • Hand signals
  • Bike check
  • Parking your bike at school
  • Active Travel Checklist
  • Fitting your helmet

DATE IMPLEMENTED: 2021

COST OF PROGRAM: Not available. Funding provided by community road safety program

COST TO USERS: None

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Not available

17/01/2023 View
Active Travel to School Program: Darwin Safe and Active Routes to School Tool Kit
City of Darwin

PROGRAM FEATURES: 

A toolkit that provides a step by step approach for schools to create a program and activity for schools and families to promote active travel to school. The toolkit is divided into the following categories:

  • Governance
  • Catchment
  • Activities
  • Travel Plan
  • Local Environment

DATE IMPLEMENTED: August 2016

COST OF PROGRAM: Not available

COST TO USER: None

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION: Other resources available are:

  • Templates
  • Surveys
  • Factsheet

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Not available

17/01/2023 View
Active Travel to School Program: Switch it Up
NSW Education

PROGRAM FEATURES: 

  • Online resouces lisiting reasons to actively travel to and from school

DATE IMPLEMENTED: Not available

COST: Not available

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Not available

17/01/2023 View
Active Travel to School Program: BikeReady (NSW)
NSW Health

PROGRAM FEATURES: Resource to support communities and schools to encourage more young people to walk or cycle, and to involve young people in the development and implementation of an active travel initiative. Includes:

  • Resource for promoting active travel in young people
  • Action Plan template
  • Action Plan example
  • Surveys
  • Facilties review checklist

DATE IMPLEMENTED: Not available

COST: Not available

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Not available

17/01/2023 View
Active Travel to School: Bikes in Schools
Waka Kotahi New Zealand Transport Agency

PROGRAM FEATURES: 

A typical Bikes in Schools package includes:

  • fleet of 30-50 new good quality bikes (in different sizes)
  • bike helmet for every child
  • riding, pump and bike skills tracks
  • bike storage where needed
  • cycle skills training

Online resources also available, including bike games.

DATE IMPLEMENTED: Not available

COST: Not available

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION: Part of program that also includes BikeReady

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Not available

17/01/2023 View
Active Travel to School Program: BikeReady (NZ)
Waka Kotahi New Zealand Transport Agency

PROGRAM FEATURES: 

  • Cycle skills training by experienced instructors
  • Curriculum resources for teachers

DATE IMPLEMENTED: Not available

COST: Not available

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION: Part of program that also includes Bikes in Schools

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Not available

17/01/2023 View
Active Travel to School Program: Bikes for Schools
AusCycling

PROGRAM FEATURES: 

  • Libraries of donated bikes that are owned by schools and can be used by all students
  • AusCycling Foundation Instructor training to teachers and parents, so bike education can be embedded as part of the day-to-day activities at the school

DATE IMPLEMENTED: Not available

COST: Not available

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:

Ride Nation funds:

  • The framework and set up for a bike donation day or connection with a partner that will accept and repurpose donated bikes to create the library.
  • Access to the online instructor training course and the conduct of the practical session and assessment onsite at the school at a time convenient to the participants.
  • Lesson plans and resources for the Ride Nation Schools bike education program, which consists of three levels – Skills, Confidence and Explore.
  • Ongoing support for the school to keep providing bike education for all students.

Plus they:

  • Facilitate the connection with community mentors to lead the donation drive and ensure the donated bikes are in good working order.

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Not available

16/01/2023 View
Active Travel to School Program: Ride Nation Schools
AusCycling

PROGRAM FEATURES: 

Ride Nation Schools is a learn-to-ride Bike Education Program delivered in schools Australia-wide. It is a fun and interactive learning experience that teaches young people to develop their riding skills and confidence – supporting kids in their independence and giving parents peace of mind.

DATE IMPLEMENTED: Not available

COST: Not available

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:

There are three levels of bike education programs in schools:

Ride Nation - Skills (Playground): Recommended for grades 2-3, this 4–6-week program focuses on developing the essential bike control skills braking, balancing and riding. The skills learnt in this program will allow them to ride around in traffic free environments (school yard, park and around the block).

Ride Nation - Confidence (Pathways): Recommended for grades 3-5. Once grasping the essential bike control skills, participants are ready to develop their riding confidence. This 4-6-week program focuses on riding and situational awareness, providing students with the skills and competences to enable them to start riding on footpaths and shared pathway in low traffic environments. This program is ideal to start having students riding to and from school!

Ride Nation - Explore (Places): Recommended for grades 5-6. Looks at utilising all the skills learnt through previous programs and develop them in different cycling situations and explore their local area by developing road safety and situational awareness. The program consists of four weeks of practical skill development and learning and ends with two local community rides for children to understand what is in their community.

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Not available

16/01/2023 View
Active Travel to School Program: RideScore
We Ride Australia

PROGRAM FEATURES: 

RideScore Active Schools uses technology to direct message parents when their children have arrived safely at school.

The program uses:

  • Smart beacons to alert parents automatically when their child arrives at school
  • Advanced use of mapping to identify safe routes to school
  • App-based information and registration technology
  • Bicycle education, and
  • Encouragement awards for students who ride and scoot to school.

DATE IMPLEMENTED: November 219

COST: Not available

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: In progress

16/01/2023 View
Active Travel to School Program: Open Streets
Bicycle Network

PROGRAM FEATURES: 

  • Open up the streets around schools at drop-off and pick-up times so that children and adults can walk and ride freely, without having to worry about car traffic
  • provides temporary infrastrcuture and signage to manage traffic

DATE IMPLEMENTED: Not available

COST: Not available

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:

Part of suite of programs to help break down the barriers that prevent more students from staying active on their journey to school. Culminates in National Ride2School Day.

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Not available

16/01/2023 View
Active Travel to School Program: Ride2School
Bicycle Network

PROGRAM FEATURES: 

  • Bike education
  • Open Streets: open up the streets around schools at drop-off and pick-up times so that children and adults can walk and ride freely, without having to worry about car traffic
  • MIND.BODY.PEDAL: a series of four workshops in one day for secondary schools that aims to inspire more teenage girls to get active through bike riding
  • ActiveSuite: designated routes (ActivePaths) and local maps (ActiveMaps) that identify walking and riding routes within a 5-10 minute zone of a given school

DATE IMPLEMENTED: Not available

COST: Not available

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:

Suite of programs to help break down the barriers that prevent more students from staying active on their journey to school. Culminates in National Ride2School Day.

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Not available

09/01/2023 View
Active Travel to School Program: School Crossing Supervisors
Transport Canberra and City Services

PROGRAM FEATURES: 

School crossing supervisors (lollipop people) to assist children to cross roads safely by directing traffic with a stop sign and providing instructions. They also help to manage the flow of pedestrians and motorists at the busiest crossings.

DATE IMPLEMENTED: 1 January 2018

COST OF PROGRAM: $700,000 per year

COST FOR USERS: None

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:

Part of program incorporating infrastructure, signage (Active Streets), training and other resources (Ride or Walk to School) to encourage children to use active travel to get to and from school.

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Not available

09/01/2023 View
Active Travel to School Program: Active Streets for Schools (ACT)
Transport Canberra and City Services

PROGRAM FEATURES: 

  • Infrastructure improvements around schools
  • Stencils along popular walking and riding paths to promote walking and riding to school

DATE IMPLEMENTED: 1 July 2015

COST OF PROGRAM: $500,000 per year

COST FOR USERS: None

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:

Infrastructure improvements include a combination of upgrades to existing infrastructure and new works, focusing on paths, crossings and treatments to slow vehicle speeds.

Blue stencils are installed along paths to provide wayfinding signage to local schools. The stencils give families the peace of mind the route to school is safe and easy to follow.

The stencils promote:

  • safe crossing locations (e.g. underpasses, dedicated crossings, traffic signals, refuge islands)
  • a safety in numbers approach by encouraging families to use similar routes
  • active school environments, which generate awareness within the community and encourage motorists to slow down.

Part of program incorporating training and other resources (Ride or Walk to School), and safety at school crossings (School Crossing Supervisors) to encourage children to use active travel to get to and from school.

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Report

09/01/2023 View
Safer Speeds Case Study - City of Yarra, Melbourne

STREET NAMES: Treatment area located between Alexandra Parade (north), Hoddle Street (east), Johnston Street (south) and Nicholson Street (west)

SUBURBS: Fitzroy and Collingwood

MUNICIPALITY: City of Yarra, Melbourne

STATE & COUNTRY: Victoria, Australia

SPEED REDUCTION: From 40 km/h to 30 km/h

DATE IMPLEMENTED: December 2019

SCHEME INCLUDED: 

  • Widening of footpaths to include alfresco dining
  • Painted on road bike sharrows in each direction
  • Wombat crossings on roundabouts
  • Reduction of traffic lanes from two to one
  • Activation of Laneways which lead to off street parking
  • Installation of dwell-time infrastructure- seating, public art
  • Wombat Crossings midblock
  • Improvement to Pavement/kerb and channel to allow easy access for everyone

COST: Not available

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:

Non-treatment area for control purposes located adjacent to the treatment area.

WHY?

  • Lower speed limit and changes to intersection layout = reduce likelihood and severity of crash types
  • Widened Zebra crossings provide pedestrian priority and consolidate pedestrian movement

LESSONS LEARNED:

The scheme included signage only. With additional infrastructure calming measures such as curb extensions, speed bumps, intersection platforms, further speed reduction improvements would be expected.

The choice control region for this study was not seen as ideal.

20/12/2022
Safer Speeds Case Study - Wellington, New Zealand
Wellington City Council

STREET NAME: Most central city streets (not main through roads)

SUBURB: Wellington

COUNTRY: New Zealand

SPEED REDUCTION: From 50 km/h to 30 km/h

DATE IMPLEMENTED: June 2020.80% of roads within Wellington approved to have speeds recuced to 30 kph Septmber 2022

SCHEME INCLUDED: 

  • 30 km/h signs
  • traffic calming e.g. raised pedestrian crossings

COST: $NZ44.8 million (from September 2022)

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:

  • Road deaths have almost halved (down by 47 per cent) in the following 18-month period from June 2020

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Not available

20/12/2022 View
Safer Speeds Case Study - Auckland City Centre
Auckland Transport

STREET NAME: Multiple

SUBURB: Auckland

COUNTRY: New Zealand

SPEED REDUCTION: Mostly from 50 km/h to 30 km/h

DATE IMPLEMENTED: 30 June 2020

SCHEME INCLUDED: 

  • Physical speed calming measures (such as speed tables and raised pedestrian crossings)
  • Re-marked parking spaces allowing for greater width
  • Side island pedestrian refuges
  • Slow speed markings
  • 30 km/h signs
  • Re-allocation of road space to remove some parking spaces and add others elsewhere
  • Pram crossings
  • Speed bumps
  • Gateway treatments at town centre entrance including side islands and painted '30' markings
  • Built out kerbs
  • Move bus stops to enable easier access by buses
  • Introduction of 30 minute waiting parking spaces
  • Separated on-road cycleway
  • New improved layout and pavements around high-conflict areas (example driveways to parking area)
  • New bus shelters
  • New bike parking facilities
  • New wayfinding signages
  • Widening seaside path from 2.4 metres to 4 metres and turning into a shared path wide enough for cyclists and pedestrians
  • Removed painted flush median and remark the road to make space for wider shared path

COST: $NZ 49,297,544 (includes reduction of speed limits on all roads including urban and rural)

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:

  • Road deaths have almost halved (down by 47 per cent) in the following 18-month period.
  • Residents surveyed felt that the speed limit changes, and engineering measures have made the local town centres safer.
  • They also gave significantly higher safety ratings across all five individual aspects of road safety following the introduction of the speed calming measures, including:
    • Safety around schools;
    • Safety around the area (excluding schools);
    • Pedestrian friendliness;
    • Cyclist friendliness; and
    • People driving under the speed limit
  • The speed calming measures have had the biggest impact on how often people are walking in their local area.
  • 19% of residents surveyed state they are now participating in at least one active mode activity more often since implementation

LESSONS LEARNED:

  • Engage with Māori as partners and not as stakeholders

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Not available

20/12/2022 View
Safer Speeds Case Study - High Pedestrian Activity Areas, NSW
Transport for NSW

LOCATION: Multiple

SUBURB: Multiple

MUNICIPALITY: Multiple

STATE & COUNTRY: New South Wales, Australia

SPEED REDUCTION: Various to 40 km/h

DATE IMPLEMENTED: 2003

SCHEME INCLUDED: 

  • Signage
  • Traffic calming: chicanes, narrow carriageways and half openings; pedestrian fencing, refuges and raised crossings; gateway treatments includign differentiation through painting, paving rasied platforms; kerb extensions, blisters and good landscaoing; illuminated or flashing lights; speed humps
  • Promotion through roadside signage, letterbox drops, local media coverage and campaigns

COST: Not available

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:

  • Casualty crashes: a 37.6% reduction in crashes 2002-2015 for High Pedestrain Activity Areas (HPAA) compared to a 20.4% reduction on comparable 40/50/60 km/h roads elsewhere
  • Serious casualty crashes: a 33.0% reduction in crashes 2005-2015 for HPAA compared to a 3.6% reduction on comparable 40/50/60 km/h roads elsewhere
  • Pedestrian serious casualty crashes: a 46.4% reduction in crashes 2005-2015 for HPAA compared to a 19.1% reduction on comparable 40/50/60 km/h roads elsewhere
  • For zones where implementation dates were known, a reduction of 12.5% to 16.4% in casualty crashes in the three to five years after implementation of HPAA zones compared to the three to five years before implementation.

LESSONS LEARNED:

  • HPAA zones demonstrated greater percentage reductions in casualty crashes compared with other permanent 40 km/h zones and also included roads with a far greater number of pedestrian and other crashes therefore achieving far greater reductions in absolute numbers of casualties
  • Stakeholders reported that introduction of permanent 40 km/h zones results in a reduction in crashes, a reduction in travel speeds and some reduction in motorised traffic.
  • Overall opinions of 40 km/h zones were mixed depending on whether individuals placed greater value on mobility compared with safety and amenity
  • The community survey indicated strong support for 40 km/h on busy roads where lots of people were walking.
  • The HPAA program guidelines are complex and put significant boundaries around implementation. They can be usefully revised to reflect learnings and support continued safety improvement.
  • Change management is a critical element of any speed management reform, and should be a key consideration in implementing lower speed limits.
  • There is good potential in taking some smaller intermediate steps, ahead of a more significant program to capitalise upon the success of the HPAA program.E.g.:
    • Consistency of zoning and signage
    • relax pedestrian crossing warrants (criteria) in HPAA zones
    • Trial 40 km/h zones without traffic calming treatments
    • Trial part-time zones
20/12/2022 View
Safer Speeds Case Study - Melbourne Shopping Strips
Department of Transport, Victoria

LOCATION: Multiple busy shopping strip centres

SPEED REDUCTION: 50 km/h to 40km/h

MUNICIPALITY: Multiple

STATE & COUNTRY: Victoria, Australia

SCHEME INCLUDED: 

  • Electronic variable speed signs
  • Advance warning signs

DATE IMPLEMENTED: Various

COST: Not available

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION: Introduced in areas of high pedestrian activity

LESSONS LEARNED:

  • There was a 14% average reduction in the rate of all casualty crashes (per km per day) after introduction of the 40 km/h zones
  • The reductions in crash rate were similar for crashes occurring at midblock locations (17% reduction in crashes per km per day), however there was no significant reduction in crashes at signalised intersections
  • The casualty crash reduction was largest for casualty crashes that involved vehicles only (20% reduction in the incidence rate)
  • There was no significant effect on the incidence rate of pedestrian-involved crashes
  • There was no statistically significant change in the rate of cyclist-involved crashes
  • There was a 14% reduction in the rate of cyclist-involved casualty crashes at midblock locations and a 48% increase in the rate of crashes involving cyclists at signalised intersections.
  • The greates reduction in crashes occurred on straight roads, with sheltered parking on both sides of the road and with fewer off-street parking facilities
  • Crash reduction was greater on roads without a painted chevron median (that is, roads with either no median, a raised island median, or a median with a tram) and without a tertiary education institution present.
  • The odds of a casualty crash reduction occurring after treatment were almost five times higher on roads with railway stations compared to roads without railway stations.
20/12/2022 View
Safer Speeds Case Study - Melbourne
City of Melbourne

STREET NAME: Local roads across inner Melbourne

SUBURB: Melbourne

MUNICIPALITY: City of Melbourne

STATE & COUNTRY: Victoria, Australia

SPEED REDUCTION: From 50 km/h to 40 km/h

DATE IMPLEMENTED: September 2022 - ongoing

SCHEME INCLUDED: 

  • Speed limit signs
  • Variable Message Signs placed at strategic locations in the area to advise of the new speed limit
  • Yellow and black ‘New Speed Limit’ signs for at least six months after the launch

COST: Not available

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:

  • Provides consistent speed limits

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Not available

19/12/2022 View
Safer Speeds Case Study - Little Streets, Melbourne
City of Melbourne

STREET NAME: One-way sections of Flinders Lane, Little Collins Street, Little Bourke Street and Little Lonsdale Street

SUBURB: Melbourne

MUNICIPALITY: City of Melbourne

STATE & COUNTRY: Victoria, Australia

SPEED REDUCTION: From 40 km/h to 20 km/h

DATE IMPLEMENTED: September 2020

SCHEME INCLUDED: 

  • Speed limit signs

COST: Not available

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:

  • People walking along the city’s little streets have right of way over vehicles and bikes

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Not available

19/12/2022 View
Safer Speeds Case Study - City of Charles Sturt, South Australia
City of Charles Sturt

STREET NAME: Multiple

SUBURB: Multiple

MUNICIPALITY: City of Chalres Sturt, Adelaide

STATE & COUNTRY: South Australia, Australia

SPEED REDUCTION: From 40 km/h to 30 km/h

DATE IMPLEMENTED: 2012

SCHEME INCLUDED: 

  • Speed limit signs
  • Community consultation

COST: $5,000-$10,000

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:

  • Reduction in driver speeds (85th percentile speeds reduced by 4.27km/h, from 48.0km/h to 43.7km/h)
  • Trafic volumes and crash numbers reduced (small sample)
  • 55% of those who live in a new 40km/h area, do not support the change in speed limit with suburbs closest to the Adelaide CBD being mostly in support, and those suburbs furthest from the CBD being mostly against
  • Some residents feel that the speed limits are confusing, ignored, inconvenient, revenue raising, increase road rage and add too much time to their trips, and that they don’t improve amenity, safety for all road users or reduce the chance of crashes
  • Most residents who are against the 40km/h areas do not agree that drivers travel too fast, or that they don’t look out for pedestrians or cyclists on their streets
  • Most residents who are in support are those who perceive driving behaviour to be an issue on their local street
  • Residents are slightly less supportive now, compared to before the 40 areas were installed
  • Support is strongest among young families, females, older residents and active transport users
  • Opinions are mixed about whether more police enforcement is necessary
  • Residents feel that the current number of signs is enough, but some feel they should be placed in clearer locations
  • Only 30% feel that speed limits on their own are enough, and many would also like roundabouts, speed humps, chicanes or raised intersections
  • Most feel that 40km/h areas are one of the least effective ways to reduce speed
  • 3 in 4 residents feel that the 40km/h area has had a positive impact on their safety, but 4 in 5 report a negative impact on their travel
  • Suburbs that are largely opposed, report that the negative impact on their travel is higher than the positive impact on their safety

LESSONS LEARNED:

  • Confusion is areas where speed limit changes multiple times

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Not available

19/12/2022 View
Safer Speeds Case Study - City of Vincent, Perth
City of Vincent

STREET NAME: Local residential streets in the areas bounded by Newcastle, Vincent and Charles Streets and the Swan River (does not include main distributor roads)

SUBURB: Southern suburbs of City of Vincent (Highgate, Mount Lawley)

MUNICIPALITY: City of Vincent, Perth

STATE & COUNTRY: Western Australia, Australia

SPEED REDUCTION: From 50 km/h to 40 km/h

DATE IMPLEMENTED: April 2019

SCHEME INCLUDED: 

  • Two year trial period
  • Community consultation prior to trial starting
  • 40 km/h signs

COST: Not available

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:

  • Main distributor roads will stay at their current speed limits, with the exception of part of Vincent Street near the Hyde Park water playground

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Not available

19/12/2022 View
Safer Speeds Case Study - Fremantle, Western Australia
City of Fremantle

STREET NAME: Multiple (40 km/h zone) and South Terrace (30 km/h)

SUBURB: Fremantle

MUNICIPALITY: City of Fremantle

STATE & COUNTRY: Western Australia, Australia

SPEED REDUCTION: From 50 km/h to 40 km/h (zone) and 30 km/h (South Terrace)

DATE IMPLEMENTED: July 2021

SCHEME INCLUDED: 

  • Speed limit signs
  • Temporary speed bumps (South Terrace)
  • Permanent traffic calming
  • Streetscape upgrades
  • Upgrades to road drainage
  • Improved sightlines at intersections
  • Replacing ashphalt footpaths with concrete
  • Upgrading tree pits to ensure better infiltration
  • Tree planting
  • Damaged infrastructure replaced
  • Resurfaced road pavement

COST: Not available

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:

No formal evaluation or after studies to measure impact, however a lot of community support for lower speeds, particularly along South Terrace.

LESSONS LEARNED:

Used to test Main Roads WA new speed limit policy.

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Not available

19/12/2022 View
Safer Speeds Case Study - Bayswater, Western Australia

STREET NAME: Railway Parade and Whatley Crescent

SUBURB: Bayswater

MUNICIPALITY: City of Bayswater, Perth

STATE & COUNTRY: Western Australia, Australia

SPEED REDUCTION: From 50 km/h to 30 km/h

DATE IMPLEMENTED: January 2020 (trial start October 2018)

SCHEME INCLUDED: 

  • 30km/h signs

COST: Not available

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:

Temporary reduction while increased number of bike riders on road due to modifications to adjacent railway line and Principal Shared Path

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Not available

19/12/2022
Safer Speeds Case Study - Manly & Liverpool, NSW
Transport for NSW

STREET NAME: Multiple

SUBURB: Manly and Liverpool

MUNICIPALITY: Northern Beaches Council and Liverpool City Council

STATE & COUNTRY: New South Wales, Australia

SPEED REDUCTION: From 40 km/h to 30 km/h

DATE IMPLEMENTED: July 2020

SCHEME INCLUDED: 

  • Replacement of speed limit signs with 30km/h signs
  • 30 km/h orange school zone signs in school areas
  • Road markings

COST: Not available

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Not available

19/12/2022 View
Safer Speeds Case Study - Sydney CBD
Transport for NSW

STREET NAME: Multiple

SUBURB: Sydney

MUNICIPALITY: City of Sydney

STATE & COUNTRY: New South Wales, Australia

SPEED REDUCTION: From 50 km/h to 40 km/h

DATE IMPLEMENTED: 2016, August 2019

SCHEME INCLUDED: 

  • Speed limit signs
  • Pavement markings
  • Communicaions campaign
  • Monitoring
  • Sydney CBD Motorcycle Reponse team: a group pof highway patrol officers dedicated to improving pedestrain safety

COST: Not available

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:

  • 46% reduction in pedestrain serious casualty crashes since 2016
  • Approximately 33% reduction in crashes causing fatalities and serious injuries In high pedestrian areas
  • Removed multiple speed limit changes on high-traffic routes

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Not available

19/12/2022 View
Safer Speeds Case Study - Brisbane
Brisbane City Council

STREET NAME: 1. Ann Street (between Creek Street and the Riverside Expressway);

2. Village precint:

  • Old Cleveland Road and Logan Road, Stones Corner (between Montague Street and the O’Keefe Street roundabout)
  • Oxley Road, Corinda (between the Hassall Street and Martindale Street intersections).

3. Station Road, Indooroopilly

4. Flinders Parade, Sandgate

5. Kelvin Grove Urban Village

SUBURB: Brisbane

MUNICIPALITY: Brisbane City Council

STATE & COUNTRY: Queensland, Australia

SPEED REDUCTION: 1 & 2. From 60 km/h to 40 km/h

3-5. From 50 km/h to 40 km/h

DATE IMPLEMENTED: 1. November 2018

2. May 2019

3 & 4. September 2019

5. Febraury 2020

SCHEME INCLUDED: 

  • Highly visible speed limit signage
  • Road markings

COST: Not available

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:

LESSONS LEARNED:

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Not available

19/12/2022 View
Safer Speeds Case Study - Safe Active Streets, Perth, Western Australia
Department of Transport, WA

STREET NAME: Multiple

SUBURB: Multiple

MUNICIPALITY: Multiple

STATE & COUNTRY: Western Australia, Australia

SPEED REDUCTION: From 50 km/h to 30 km/h

DATE IMPLEMENTED: September 2017 - ongoing

SCHEME INCLUDED: 

  • Connections to off-road shared paths
  • Links community amenites e.g. schools, railway stations, shops
  • Blue and white Safe Active Street road patches at major entry points
  • 30 km/h speed limit signs
  • Raised platforms at intersections
  • Single-lane slow points
  • Narrowing street widths by introducing on-street parking and plantings
  • Changing stop/give-way signs to give priority to movements along the Safe Active Street
  • Using traffic islands and medians to restrict car movements at intersections, while allowing movements in all directions for people on bikes and on foot
  • Introducing new pedestrian or bike crossings
  • Introducing bicycle symbol road markings in the centre of each unmarked lane, to encourage cyclists to take the lane
  • Lateral shifts in the carriageway to reduce sightlines (i.e. swapping formalised on-street parking and new tree planting nibs from one side of the street to the other
  • Additional tree planting and landscaping make them more attractive places to walk or ride

COST: Not available

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:

Evaluation currently being undertaken and is due to be released in 2023.

LESSONS LEARNED:

Scheme is ongoing, with more locations continually being added. Lessons from previous implementations are being introduced for each one.

RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Not yet available (due 2023)

19/12/2022 View
Safer Speeds Case Study - Warnambool, Victoria

STREET NAME: Liebig Street between Raglan Parade and Merri Street

SUBURB: Warnambool

MUNICIPALITY: City of Warrnambool

STATE & COUNTRY: Victoria, Australia

SPEED REDUCTION: From 40 km/h to 30 km/h

DATE IMPLEMENTED: December 2019

SCHEME INCLUDED: 

  • Widening of footpaths to include alfresco dining
  • Painted on road bike sharrows in each direction
  • Wombat crossings on roundabouts
  • Reduction of traffic lanes from two to one
  • Activation of Laneways which lead to off street parking
  • Installation of dwell-time infrastructure- seating, public art
  • Wombat Crossings midblock
  • Improvement to Pavement/kerb and channel to allow easy access for everyone

COST: Not available

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:

The projects’ infrastructure has successfully created a welcoming pedestrian priority experience in the City Centre.

From the data:

Reduction in speed to under 30km/hr:

  • 2021 85%tile- 25.4km/hr
  • 2018 85%tile- 38.3km/hr

Liebig Street Crashes (2011-2015): Pedestrian - 4 (2 aged 70+), Car - 2, Bicycle - 1

Liebig Street Crashes (2016-2020) (*note construction was 2018/19 and COVID): Car - 2

Safe Systems Road Safety Rating Improvement: Liebig/Koriot- 114 to 87 and Liebig/Lava- 113.5 to 82

WHY?

  • Lower speed limit and changes to intersection layout = reduce likelihood and severity of crash types
  • Widened Zebra crossings provide pedestrian priority and consolidate pedestrian movement

LESSONS LEARNED:

The scheme included signage only. With additional infrastructure calming measures such as curb extensions, speed bumps, intersection platforms, further speed reduction improvements would be expected.

The choice control region for this study was not seen as ideal.

06/10/2022
Safer Speeds Case Study - Fitzroy & Collingwood, Victoria

STREET NAME: Treatment area located between Alexandra Parade (north), Hoddle Street (east), Johnston Street (south) and Nicholson Street (west)

SUBURB: Fitzroy and Collingwood

MUNICIPALITY: City of Yarra, Melbourne

STATE & COUNTRY: Victoria, Australia

SPEED REDUCTION: From 40 km/h to 30 km/h

DATE IMPLEMENTED: January 2020 (trial start October 2018)

SCHEME INCLUDED: 

  • Implementation of trial area (30km/h) and control area (40km/h)
  • Replacement of speed limit signs with 30km/h signs
  • Pavement marking
  • 91 sites where speeds were recorded

COST: Not available

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:

  • Modest reductions in mean speed: average travel speed fell by 0.3km/h
  • Reductions were more apparent at higher speeds where risk of severe injury or death to vulnerable users is more likely
  • Unexpected speed reductions in adjacent control sites
  • “Treatment effect” showed 11% reduction of likelihood of a vehicle travelling above 40km/h in treatment area and 25% reduction above 50km/h
  • 4% reduction in risk of severe injury for pedestrians
  • Increase of people supporting the 30km/h area from 42.7% to 50.3% within the trial area

Observations of pedestrian and cyclist activity were undertaken at a limited number of locations within the treatment and non-treatment areas during three days before the trial implementation and three days at 12 months into the trial. The small number of locations and survey days limits the ability for general conclusions. The data shows a 12.7% drop in pedestrian activity (largely driven by a single site) and a 27.8% increase in cycling activity.

LESSONS LEARNED:

For some members of the community there was confusion about how the pedestrian priority at the crossings worked, how to determine when to enter and how to exit the roundabout.

There are feelings of frustration caused by inconvenience to the driving experience which are perceived to be caused by the Wombat Crossings.

Intercept surveys at the Wombat Crossings found people using them thought they created a more convenient walking experience however there was still concern about understanding how the crossings worked and the expectations of people walking and people driving.

Information about the benefits of the crossings and the expectations of all road users would assist the community to understand the role they play in creating a pedestrian priority city centre.

06/10/2022
Safer Speeds Case Studies - Gold Coast, Queensland
City of Gold Coast

LOCATION:

Cavill Avenue/Orchid Avenue, Surfers Paradise
Hedges Avenue/Old Burleigh Road, Mermaid Beach
Garfield Terrace/Northcliffe Terrace, Surfers Paradise
Jefferson Lane, Palm Beach
James Street, Burleigh Heads
Connor Street, Burleigh Heads
Pacific Parade, Tugun
Griffith Street, Coolangatta
Thomas Drive, Chervon Island
Cloyne Road, Southport
Marshall Lane, Southport
Tedder Avenue, Main Road
Broadbeach area – Queensland Avenue, Albert Avenue, Old Burleigh Road, Victoria Avenue, Surf Parade and Charles Avenue

SPEED REDUCTION: Various – some 50 km/h to 40km/h, 50km/h to 30km/h and 40km/h to 30km/h

MUNICIPALITY: City of Gold Coast

STATE & COUNTRY: Queensland, Australia

SCHEME INCLUDED: 

  • Signs and lines
  • Raised crossings and wombats
  • Contraflow bicycle lanes
  • Placemaking

DATE IMPLEMENTED: Various

COST: Noted as low-cost initiative in the Gold Coast Road Safety Plan 2021-2026
Speed reviews done internally (although Department of Transport and Main Roads grants available for these speed reviews) and minimal operational budget required for signs and linemarking and threshold treatments if required.

ADDITIONAL INFO: General support and now going back to some 50km/h to 40km/h zones and undertaking further reviews to reduce to 30km/h

LESSONS LEARNED:

  • Lesson around now going straight to 30km/h, rather than 50km/h to 40km/h and then second review 40km/h to 30km/h (this has come from taking a conservative approach initially and now being more comfortable with going straight to 30km/h following the speed limit review process documented in MUTCD Part 4.
  • Tools now support 30km/h (MUTCD Part 4)
  • Importance of looking at a broader area, get the data and use engineering knowhow to develop consistent precinct wide approach for speed limits
  • Queensland Police Service supportive of 30km/h (note they have had challenges enforcing loud cars in café precinct but can enforce speed breach)
  • Importance of working with community and Councillors, and that when the speed reduction requests come via their offices, they are more supportive/less concerned
  • Value of placemaking project supporting traffic speed changes in centre projects
19/07/2022 View
Bike It Baw Baw: Cyclist Safety Issues in the Baw Baw Shire
Monash University Accident Research Centre

The aim of the study was to identify the issues in Baw Baw Shire in Gippsland, Victoria, related to the safety of on-road cyclists. Safety concerns specific to the Baw Baw Shire are identified and potential countermeasures that may improve cyclist safety are discussed.

12/04/2022 View
Cyclists and red lights – a study of the behaviour of commuter cyclist in Melbourne
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

The primary aim of this research was to investigate the behaviours of cyclists and their interactions with vehicles at signalised intersections.The results focus on the three types of behaviour at red lights. Males were more likely to continue through the red light than females and the majority of males who rode through red lights were runners. The findings are important as they differentiate between the types of red light running behaviour and highlight factors influencing cyclists risk exposure.

12/04/2022 View
Cyclist bunch riding: a review of the literature
Monash University Accident Research Centre

This report is a review of the literature on cyclists who ride in large groups or bunches on public roads. The research was conducted following the Victorian State Coroner’s investigation into the death of an elderly pedestrian, following a collision with a cyclist who was riding in a bunch. The aims of the review were to understand the behaviour of bunch riders, particularly the behaviours that may contribute to increased risk of collision and to make recommendations for effective enforcement and countermeasure strategies for this road user group.

12/04/2022 View
Naturalistic cycling study: identifying risk factors for on-road commuter cyclists
Amy Gillett Foundation

This study identified risk factors for collisions/near-collisions involving on-road commuter cyclists and drivers. A naturalistic cycling study was conducted in Melbourne, Australia, with cyclists wearing helmet-mounted video cameras. Video recordings captured cyclists’ perspective of the road and traffic behaviours including head checks, reactions and manoeuvres.

12/04/2022 View
Painting a designated space: cyclist and driver compliance at cycling infrastructure at intersections
Amy Gillett Foundation

This study evaluated cyclist and driver compliance at cycling infrastructure at signalised intersections to determine the effectiveness of the infrastructure in creating a designated space for cyclists. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted during peak travel times at six sites in Melbourne in March 2009.

12/04/2022 View
The application of a naturalistic driving method to investigate on-road cyclist behaviour
Amy Gillett Foundation

The aim of this research was to investigate the behaviour of on-road commuter cyclists and their interactions with other road users in urban areas using a helmet-mounted video camera. Cycling is increasing in popularity popular in Australia; however, cyclists are physically vulnerable road users. To date, there has been little research on behavioural risk factors associated with collisions between cyclists and drivers, and much has relied on post-event data. Absent from this approach is an understanding of what contributed to collisions and near-collisions, in particular the behaviour of cyclists and drivers.

12/04/2022 View
Bicycle helmet use, an excerpt from – Cyclist safety: an investigation of how cyclists and drivers interact on the roads
Amy Gillett Foundation

The use of bicycle helmets by cyclists is widely supported amongst the injury prevention and health promotion communities.
There is extensive research that addresses the efficacy of helmets in reducing the severity of head injuries and several researchers who dispute the need or efficacy of helmets.

12/04/2022 View
Cyclist safety: an investigation of how cyclists and drivers interact on the roads
Monash University

Cyclists are vulnerable road users and the most severe injury outcomes for on-road cyclists are from collisions involving a motor vehicle. Research undertaken in this thesis aimed to identify contributing factors in unsafe cyclist-driver events to inform efforts to reduce the incidence of cyclist-driver crashes and cyclist injury severity outcomes.

12/04/2022 View
Riding through red lights: The rate, characteristics and risk factors of non-compliant urban commuter cyclists
Accident Analysis & Prevention

This study determined the rate and associated factors of red light infringement among urban commuter cyclists. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted using a covert video camera to record cyclists at 10 sites across metropolitan Melbourne, Australia from October 2008 to April 2009.

12/04/2022 View
Making bike safety research count
Amy Gillett Foundation

Given the lack of participation data and the underreporting of cyclist injury crashes, it is difficult to determine the magnitude of cyclist road trauma with any precision. This lack of data highlights the neglect in Australia of cyclist-focused monitoring that is essential to understanding injury rates and factors that contribute to cyclist crashes. The Amy Gillett Foundation (AGF) has developed a systematic policy development approach that identifies two issues: safe overtaking distances and cyclist-open vehicle door crashes, explored in this paper.

12/04/2022 View
MACCS Monash Alfred cyclist crash study
Monash University Accident Research Centre

Current primary data sources on mechanisms of Victorian bicycle crashes lack sufficient detail to draw clear conclusions on crash causation. Nor are these data adequate to link specific crash mechanisms to characteristic injury outcomes. The Monash Alfred Cycle Crash Study (MACCS) aimed to redress these data deficiencies through piloting an in-depth crash investigation study focused on cyclists. In-depth data were collected from 158 patients presenting to The Alfred and Sandringham Hospital Emergency Departments who were riders of bicycles involved in a crash. Information collected covered pre-crash factors pertaining to environment and cyclist/driver behaviour, crash mechanism, and injury outcomes from hospital records. Analyses of these data provide insight on crash causation and associated injury burdens which can inform the development, prioritisation and targeting of effective countermeasures.

12/04/2022 View
Why do cyclists infringe at red lights? An investigation of Australian cyclists’ reasons for red light infringement
Accident Analysis & Prevention

This study investigated the behavioural, attitudinal and traffic factors contributing to red light infringement by Australian cyclists using a national online survey. The survey was conducted from February to May 2010. In total, 2061 cyclists completed the survey and 37.3% reported that they had ridden through a signalised intersection during the red light phase. The main predictive characteristics for infringement were: gender with males more likely to offend than females (OR: 1.54, CI: 1.22–1.94); age with older cyclists less likely to infringe compared to younger cyclists 18–29 years (30–49 yrs: OR: 0.71, CI: 0.52–0.96; 50+ yrs: OR: 0.51, CI: 0.35–0.74), and; crash involvement with cyclists more likely to infringe at red lights if they had not previously been involved in a bicycle–vehicle crash while riding (OR: 1.35; CI: 1.10–1.65). The main reasons given for red light infringement were: to turn left (32.0%); because the inductive loop detector did not detect their bike (24.2%); when there was no other road users present (16.6%); at a pedestrian crossing (10.7%); and ‘Other’ (16.5%). A multinomial logistic regression model was constructed to examine the associations between cyclist characteristics and reasons for infringement. Findings suggest that some cyclists are motivated to infringe by their perception that their behaviour is safe and that infrastructure factors were associated with infringement. Ways to manage this, potentially risky, behaviour including behaviour programmes, more cyclist-inclusive infrastructure and enforcement are discussed.

12/04/2022 View
Road crashes involving bike riders in Victoria, 2002–2012
Amy Gillett Foundation

This study is a multi-year analysis of bicycle rider crash statistics undertaken using Victorian CrashStats. It clearly shows that there are distinct differences in the crash profiles of fatal bike rider crashes compared to non-fatal crashes.

12/04/2022 View
Cycling Futures
University of Adelaide Press

The growing interest in cycling in Australia and New Zealand, as in other parts of the world, is underpinned by three major concerns: health and fitness, congestion and liveability, pollution and climate change.

Australasian researchers, practitioners, policy makers and community members are engaged in a global discussion on the role of cycling in addressing these concerns. Contributors to (this) book report on and extend this discussion as they explore the insights generated locally and internationally on the past, present and future of cycling.

The focus of the first half of the book is largely on the current engagement with cycling, challenges faced by existing and would-be cyclists and the issues cycling might address. The second half of the book is concerned with strategies and processes of change. Contributors working from different ontological positions reflect on changing socio-spatial relations to enable the broadest possible participation in cycling.

12/04/2022 View
Cycle Aware
University of Adelaide, Monash University and Queensland University of Technology

Cycle Aware is an Australia wide research project looking at how drivers learn to interact with cyclists. It focuses on the education and training received by people in the early stages of driving such as pre-learner, learner and probationary drivers. The ultimate aim of the project is to foster safer driver-cyclist interactions.

07/04/2022 View
Research report 452 Predicting walkability
Waka Kotahi NZ Transport Agency

This research provides a number of mathematical formulas for predicting the quality of the walking environment from the perspective of the user using operational and physical variables. The formulas were derived by combining the perception data gathered from participants in the community street reviews with measurements of the walking environment.

The two main areas that were researched to enable the derivation of formulas were:

  • when walking along the road (path length)
  • when crossing the road (road crossing).

This research describes the process for obtaining the data and deriving the formulas, and recommends the formulas most suitable for practitioner use.

07/04/2022 View
Research report 440 Reducing pedestrian delay at traffic signals
Waka Kotahi NZ Transport Agency

Since 2000, the benefits of walking as a mode of travel have been recognised by the New Zealand government in a raft of policy statements and strategies. However, the Ministry of Transport acknowledges that there are a number of issues to overcome to encourage more walking. This research focuses on one of the key issues: namely, the delay experienced by pedestrians at traffic signals.

Historically, New Zealand's approach to pedestrian delay has been minimal, with pedestrian issues considered primarily from the point of view of safety, rather than level of service or amenity. At traffic signals, pedestrians are often accommodated in a way that causes the least amount of interruption to motorised traffic, and signal cycle times can be long, leading to excessive pedestrian waiting times. This can lead to frustration, causing pedestrians to violate the signals and use their own judgement to cross, resulting in safety risks.

This research, which was carried out between 2007 and 2010 in Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch, used techniques such as pedestrian attitude surveys, micro-simulation modelling and a literature review of international best practice to identify methods of reducing pedestrian delay at signalised intersections in these cities. The recommendations developed during the course of the research provide both technical and policy mechanisms for improving pedestrian delay in New Zealand's central-city areas.

07/04/2022 View
Research Report 439 Generation of walking, cycling and public transport trips: pilot study
Waka Kotahi NZ Transport Agency

This research investigated a method for collecting data relating to walk, cycle and public transport trips to land-use activities.

A method needed to be developed that would require a short questionnaire to ensure higher sample rates, while also providing reliable and consistent results. This data could subsequently be used in calculating trip rates for walk, cycle and public transport trips, when combined with trip rate units such as floor area.

Multi-modal trip data has been collected for some time in the UK. The survey method developed in this research was simpler than the UK method by interviewing in only one direction for the vast majority of land uses, apart from residential where the recommended method was to interview in both directions.

A face-to-face questionnaire method was developed over a series of different site surveys in Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch during 2010. The research also identified that collecting non-car mode trip information through purely observer methods was not sufficiently accurate and that simple questionnaire surveys were necessary with clear instructions from the survey organiser to ensure all relevant information would be collected.

07/04/2022 View
Research Report 431 The mechanisms and types of non-motor vehicle injuries to pedestrians in the transport system and indicated infrastructure implications
Waka Kotahi NZ Transport Agency

Research carried out in 2008-2010 examined the quantum and causes of non-motor vehicle injuries to pedestrians through a structured interview survey. Pedestrians sustaining injuries in locations away from the road network (eg in parks) were excluded, as the emphasis was on the role of road and footpath features. The highest proportion of trips and falls (34%) was sustained while stepping over a kerb. A further 18% were caused by irregularities in the path or road surface. Factors that amplified the severity of injuries included the road or path surface, pedestrians' inattention, type of footwear worn, and whether walking or running. Two main issues were identified from the study. These were:

  1. people tripped and fell more often on poorly maintained surfaces as opposed to poorly designed areas
  2. the severity of the injuries is directly related to the surface.

The study recommends improving the definition of kerbing in key pedestrian areas and improving the maintenance regime of footpaths and roads used by pedestrians, eg crossings. The study also found that it is necessary to instigate research to provide improved data and analysis tools to prioritise such countermeasures vis-a-vis other uses of road safety funds and improved data for input into such analysis tools. Further, a national guide is needed for pedestrian road safety audits and inspections covering both motor vehicle and non-motor vehicle risk.

07/04/2022 View
Research report 428 Trialling pedestrian countdown timers at traffic signals
Waka Kotahi NZ Transport Agency

The overall research objective was to evaluate changes in pedestrian safety and traffic efficiency from installing pedestrian countdown timers. The study analysed pedestrian behaviour and safety before and after the installation of a trial countdown timer at the intersection of Queens Street, Bunny Street and Margaret Street in Lower Hutt in July 2007. The results were compared with the 2006/07 trial at the Queen Street/Victoria Street intersection in Auckland CBD and showed very different results. The Auckland city trial indicated that, if placed in suitable locations, pedestrian countdown signals were associated with pedestrian behaviour change that enhanced safety. This study in Lower Hutt demonstrated that the observed pedestrian safety decreased as the percentage of both late starters and late finishers increased, although this was likely to be due to the nature of the intersection with one particularly long diagonal crossing coupled with the allocated phase times. In contrast, perceived pedestrian safety increased with the installation of the countdown timers.

07/04/2022 View
Research Report 359 Valuing the health benefits of active modes
Waka Kotahi NZ Transport Agency

This report seeks to provide a per-kilometre value for the health benefits of active transport modes (such as walking and cycling) that is compatible with the Land Transport New Zealand Economic Evaluation Manual Volume 2 (EEM2). The first two sections of the report begin by explaining the scope of the project and the background. Section 3 investigates the evidence of the connection between physical activity and health outcomes. Section 4 clarifies the role of active transport modes as physical activity, and reports the New Zealand-specific data about active transport mode engagement. Section 5 gives a brief comparative summary of the literature review of cost-benefit analyses and valuation techniques used overseas to value the health benefits of active modes. This report uses population attributable fractions (PAF) to estimate the annual burden of mortality and morbidity costs per inactive adult. Annual estimates of the costs of inactivity are applied to the New Zealand adult population using a weighted sum to establish a per-kilometre value for each mode. The valuation presented in this report is limited by a poverty of data, but the final values are considered to be a reasonable estimate of the health benefits of active modes. While further research is recommended to obtain more precise estimates of the costs of inactivity in New Zealand, it is considered that the values presented in this report are a sound interim estimate for inclusion in the EEM2.

07/04/2022 View
Research Report 329 Impediments to walking as a mode choice
Waka Kotahi NZ Transport Agency

Conducted in 2005, this study evaluates a case-control design of contrasts between walkers and drivers to address factors influencing the uptake of walking as a mode choice. With samples drawn from Auckland and Wellington, New Zealand, this research uses a 62-item survey to examine a number of factors: fear of crime; trip-chaining/car dependency; weather; distance/time; social pressure, fatigue and fitness, parking charges, enjoyment of walking, inconvenience, and geography. To avoid factors such as car dependency or the inability to walk, participants are selected because they live a short distance from public transport parking facilities. The group of drivers demonstrate an irregular break in car dependency by driving their cars to the station in order to use public transport. The results indicate that for parking facilities, convenience creates demand. Poor weather has an influence on the decision to drive, and fine weather improves the likelihood of walking. Previous studies claim decisions to walk are impeded by certain factors. While location effects are observed between the groups, these results suggest that such factors are in fact inconsequential.

07/04/2022 View
Research Report 294 Increasing cycling and walking: an analysis of readiness to change
Waka Kotahi NZ Transport Agency

In 2003, Sport and Recreation New Zealand (SPARC) and the Cancer Society of New Zealand commissioned a major social marketing survey to segment adult New Zealanders in terms of physical activity and healthy eating habits. The questionnaire included several transport-related questions. The resulting ‘Obstacles to Action’ database contains responses from over 8000 people aged 16 or over.

07/04/2022 View
Research Report 660: Factors affecting cycling levels of service
Waka Kotahi NZ Transport Agency

This report examines cyclists’ perceptions of cycle infrastructure levels of service and proposes an assessment methodology for evaluating the level of service provided by cycling facilities.

03/09/2021 View