Resources

This page contains some key resources on walking and cycling, including an archive of the documents produced by the Australian Bicycle Council.

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Movement & Place and the design of safe & successful places
iMove

Future Transport Strategy 2056 sets the 40-year vision and framework for customer mobility in NSW. As part of this vision, the Strategy recognises the importance of shaping our future transport spaces to ensure balance between movement and place.

To support the development of successful places, the Movement & Place Framework promotes the urban design principles that allow local communities to come together in places with vehicle movement, thereby supporting social and economic growth.

The purpose of this research is to use the Movement & Place Framework and Safe System approach to develop a series of evidence-based design principles and guidelines for balancing vehicle movement and place-making, to enhance the development of safe and successful places.

Using virtual reality (VR) and pedestrian tracking technology, the project aims to better understand relationships between pedestrian-oriented urban design elemental variables and safe system treatments to improve the human experience and safety of pedestrians.

Outcomes from this research will facilitate the implementation and evaluation of successful places in collaboration with local councils to determine the real-life impact of different place-making and safety variables.

14/06/2022 View
Research report 436 Benefits of new and improved pedestrian facilities - before and after studies
Waka Kotahi NZ Transport Agency

Walking is an essential mode of transport. New and improved pedestrian facilities promote walking and provide greater access and mobility within our communities.

The NZ Transport Agency has recently updated the procedures for the evaluation of pedestrian improvement projects. The benefit factor applying to new pedestrian trips was increased from $0.50 to $2.70/km, making pedestrian facility improvement projects more economically viable. Thus, estimating the increase in pedestrian flows (as opposed to simply recording existing pedestrian flows) is now important in the economic evaluation of new or improved facilities.

This research analysed case studies at eight New Zealand sites where the implementation of new pedestrian facilities (or the improvement of existing facilities) led to increased pedestrian usage and improved perception of the sites. The study recorded pedestrian rates both before and after facility implementation, and analysed accompanying factors such as safety, delay and directness. It also tried to develop an expected pedestrian-usage model, based on before and after data analysis, for planners and funding agents to use when planning new or improved facilities, and for use in project evaluation.

Finally, a monitoring database containing before and after pedestrian count data for various new and improved pedestrian facilities, along with a list of the accompanying factors mentioned above, was developed for future use.

07/04/2022 View
Research Report 435 Walking and cycling: improving combined use of physical activity/health and transport data
Waka Kotahi NZ Transport Agency

SPARC's Active New Zealand Survey (ANZS) is a high-quality nationwide survey of over 4000 adults collected through face-to-face interviews over 12 months in 2007/08. Although collected mainly to measure levels of sport/recreation activity and to quantify physical activity in general, it includes data of interest to the transport sector on walking and cycling.

This report uses the ANZS data to meet the following transport-related objectives:

  • quantifying how much walking/cycling by New Zealand adults is done mainly for transport purposes compared with sport/recreation purposes
  • quantifying the proportion of New Zealand adults meeting key health guideline for physical activity through active transport alone, and the proportion for whom active transport makes a clear contribution to them meeting such guidelines
  • establishing whether SPARC's ANZS and the Ministry of Transport's NZ Household Travel Survey deliver broadly comparable estimates of transport-related walking and cycling
  • recommending refinements to collection, analysis, and interpretation of transport and physical activity/health data for the benefit of both sectors.
07/04/2022 View
Research Report 431 The mechanisms and types of non-motor vehicle injuries to pedestrians in the transport system and indicated infrastructure implications
Waka Kotahi NZ Transport Agency

Research carried out in 2008-2010 examined the quantum and causes of non-motor vehicle injuries to pedestrians through a structured interview survey. Pedestrians sustaining injuries in locations away from the road network (eg in parks) were excluded, as the emphasis was on the role of road and footpath features. The highest proportion of trips and falls (34%) was sustained while stepping over a kerb. A further 18% were caused by irregularities in the path or road surface. Factors that amplified the severity of injuries included the road or path surface, pedestrians' inattention, type of footwear worn, and whether walking or running. Two main issues were identified from the study. These were:

  1. people tripped and fell more often on poorly maintained surfaces as opposed to poorly designed areas
  2. the severity of the injuries is directly related to the surface.

The study recommends improving the definition of kerbing in key pedestrian areas and improving the maintenance regime of footpaths and roads used by pedestrians, eg crossings. The study also found that it is necessary to instigate research to provide improved data and analysis tools to prioritise such countermeasures vis-a-vis other uses of road safety funds and improved data for input into such analysis tools. Further, a national guide is needed for pedestrian road safety audits and inspections covering both motor vehicle and non-motor vehicle risk.

07/04/2022 View
Research report 428 Trialling pedestrian countdown timers at traffic signals
Waka Kotahi NZ Transport Agency

The overall research objective was to evaluate changes in pedestrian safety and traffic efficiency from installing pedestrian countdown timers. The study analysed pedestrian behaviour and safety before and after the installation of a trial countdown timer at the intersection of Queens Street, Bunny Street and Margaret Street in Lower Hutt in July 2007. The results were compared with the 2006/07 trial at the Queen Street/Victoria Street intersection in Auckland CBD and showed very different results. The Auckland city trial indicated that, if placed in suitable locations, pedestrian countdown signals were associated with pedestrian behaviour change that enhanced safety. This study in Lower Hutt demonstrated that the observed pedestrian safety decreased as the percentage of both late starters and late finishers increased, although this was likely to be due to the nature of the intersection with one particularly long diagonal crossing coupled with the allocated phase times. In contrast, perceived pedestrian safety increased with the installation of the countdown timers.

07/04/2022 View
Research Report 359 Valuing the health benefits of active modes
Waka Kotahi NZ Transport Agency

This report seeks to provide a per-kilometre value for the health benefits of active transport modes (such as walking and cycling) that is compatible with the Land Transport New Zealand Economic Evaluation Manual Volume 2 (EEM2). The first two sections of the report begin by explaining the scope of the project and the background. Section 3 investigates the evidence of the connection between physical activity and health outcomes. Section 4 clarifies the role of active transport modes as physical activity, and reports the New Zealand-specific data about active transport mode engagement. Section 5 gives a brief comparative summary of the literature review of cost-benefit analyses and valuation techniques used overseas to value the health benefits of active modes. This report uses population attributable fractions (PAF) to estimate the annual burden of mortality and morbidity costs per inactive adult. Annual estimates of the costs of inactivity are applied to the New Zealand adult population using a weighted sum to establish a per-kilometre value for each mode. The valuation presented in this report is limited by a poverty of data, but the final values are considered to be a reasonable estimate of the health benefits of active modes. While further research is recommended to obtain more precise estimates of the costs of inactivity in New Zealand, it is considered that the values presented in this report are a sound interim estimate for inclusion in the EEM2.

07/04/2022 View
Research Report 329 Impediments to walking as a mode choice
Waka Kotahi NZ Transport Agency

Conducted in 2005, this study evaluates a case-control design of contrasts between walkers and drivers to address factors influencing the uptake of walking as a mode choice. With samples drawn from Auckland and Wellington, New Zealand, this research uses a 62-item survey to examine a number of factors: fear of crime; trip-chaining/car dependency; weather; distance/time; social pressure, fatigue and fitness, parking charges, enjoyment of walking, inconvenience, and geography. To avoid factors such as car dependency or the inability to walk, participants are selected because they live a short distance from public transport parking facilities. The group of drivers demonstrate an irregular break in car dependency by driving their cars to the station in order to use public transport. The results indicate that for parking facilities, convenience creates demand. Poor weather has an influence on the decision to drive, and fine weather improves the likelihood of walking. Previous studies claim decisions to walk are impeded by certain factors. While location effects are observed between the groups, these results suggest that such factors are in fact inconsequential.

07/04/2022 View
Research Report 294 Increasing cycling and walking: an analysis of readiness to change
Waka Kotahi NZ Transport Agency

In 2003, Sport and Recreation New Zealand (SPARC) and the Cancer Society of New Zealand commissioned a major social marketing survey to segment adult New Zealanders in terms of physical activity and healthy eating habits. The questionnaire included several transport-related questions. The resulting ‘Obstacles to Action’ database contains responses from over 8000 people aged 16 or over.

07/04/2022 View
National Walking and Cycling Participation Survey 2021 - NSW
Cycling and Walking Australia and New Zealand

The National Walking and Cycling Participation Survey provides insight into walking and cycling activity across Australia and is a successor to the National Cycling Participation Survey which was conducted biennially from 2011 to 2019.

02/09/2021 View
National Walking and Cycling Participation Survey 2021 - Final Report
Cycling & Walking Australia and New Zealand

The National Walking and Cycling Participation Survey provides insight into walking and cycling activity across Australia and is a successor to the National Cycling Participation Survey which was conducted biennially from 2011 to 2019.

02/09/2021 View
National Walking and Cycling Participation Survey 2021 - WA
Cycling and Walking Australia and New Zealand

The National Walking and Cycling Participation Survey provides insight into walking and cycling activity across Australia and is a successor to the National Cycling Participation Survey which was conducted biennially from 2011 to 2019.

31/08/2021 View
National Walking and Cycling Participation Survey 2021 - Victoria
Cycling and Walking Australia and New Zealand

The National Walking and Cycling Participation Survey provides insight into walking and cycling activity across Australia and is a successor to the National Cycling Participation Survey which was conducted biennially from 2011 to 2019.

31/08/2021 View
National Walking and Cycling Participation Survey 2021 - Tasmania
Cycling and Walking Australia and New Zealand

The National Walking and Cycling Participation Survey provides insight into walking and cycling activity across Australia and is a successor to the National Cycling Participation Survey which was conducted biennially from 2011 to 2019.

31/08/2021 View
National Walking and Cycling Participation Survey 2021 - SA
Cycling and Walking Australia and New Zealand

The National Walking and Cycling Participation Survey provides insight into walking and cycling activity across Australia and is a successor to the National Cycling Participation Survey which was conducted biennially from 2011 to 2019.

31/08/2021 View
National Walking and Cycling Participation Survey 2021 - Queensland
Cycling and Walking Australia and New Zealand

The National Walking and Cycling Participation Survey provides insight into walking and cycling activity across Australia and is a successor to the National Cycling Participation Survey which was conducted biennially from 2011 to 2019.

31/08/2021 View
National Walking and Cycling Participation Survey 2021 - ACT
Cycling and Walking Australia and New Zealand

The National Walking and Cycling Participation Survey provides insight into walking and cycling activity across Australia and is a successor to the National Cycling Participation Survey which was conducted biennially from 2011 to 2019.

31/08/2021 View
National Walking and Cycling Participation Survey 2021 - NT
Cycling and Walking Australia and New Zealand

The National Walking and Cycling Participation Survey provides insight into walking and cycling activity across Australia and is a successor to the National Cycling Participation Survey which was conducted biennially from 2011 to 2019.

31/08/2021 View
Research Report 621: Regulations and Safety for Electric Bicycles and Other Low-powered Vehicles
Waka Kotahi NZ Transport Agency

This research report presents a review of overseas legislation, technology trends, market and safety analyses for low-powered, low-speed vehicles.
These vehicles include electric bicycles, mobility scooters, self-balancing devices and other personal mobility or wheeled recreational devices.
Current New Zealand LPV legislation is based only on motor power and how certain LPVs may be used. In all other countries reviewed, top motor-assisted speed is regulated.
The report assesses various regulatory and non-regulatory options for improving safety while supporting technological innovation and mode choice options in New Zealand.

13/08/2021 View
National Cycling Participation Survey (NCPS)
Austroads

The National Cycling Participation Survey (NCPS) is a standardised survey that has been repeated biennially since March/April 2011, with minor changes to the survey structure between 2011 and 2013. The NCPS provides data on cycling participation at a national level and allows for estimates of participation for each state and territory, and the capital cities and non-capital areas within each state and territory.

20/05/2021 View